If X is 20° less than the sectant of 4π×10^(-10)/√3.17Y and > than the tangent of the reciprocal of either, what is 'Y'?

Sunday, November 30, 2008

The Financial Crisis

There are many opinions on the causes and subsequently the solutions for the current financial crisis. It is a global problem which threatens many major companies and banks, many which have all ready become bankrupt. The crisis is rising to its peak and can only be solved when the root of the problem has been addressed correctly by the government. This crisis is said to be the worst one since the Great Depression back in the 1930’s.

Cause
The Monetary Policy and the Housing Bubble
The crisis began at the beginning of the decade when the housing bubble began to grow. The low standards for borrowing money meant that more people were able to borrow money. Low interest rates are also a contributing factor to the increased amount of money lend to people. Alan Greenspan, the former chairman of the U.S. Reserve Bank was criticised for keeping the interest rates so low for so long. Interest rates during 2003 went as close to 0%. Greenspan believed in Self Policing (banks regulating their own loans) and free market and opposed financial supervision by the government.

The easy credit and low interest rates encouraged more people to borrow money to buy houses. This eventually created a national housing bubble. The increase in demand caused house prices to slowly rise until it became unaffordable for the average household. House prices had been rising at an annual rate of at least 10% for a number of years. The housing bubble peaked and burst in the year 2006 and after that, house prices started tumbling.

Subprime Mortgage Crisis and the Credit Crunch
But how did the housing bubble burst? Subprime mortgages are the culprit. The Subprime Mortgage Crisis originates from the risky loans made by lenders to people who do not have a stable income or no income at all. In the past decade, checks on a person’s credit history before lending them money wasn’t very strict, so borrowing money would have been very easy. It wasn’t until Lehman Brothers Holdings became bankrupt earlier this year (see below) that banks put stricter standards for lending money.

When banks lend money to people to buy houses, they either keep the mortgages themselves or sell it on in the secondary market. The major secondary market investors are Fannie Mae (FNMA) and Freddie Mac (FHLMC). The objective of these two companies is to constantly provide funds for the banks by buying mortgages which replenishes their funds so they can lend money to more people. But when banks lend money to homebuyers who cannot afford their mortgages (subprime borrowers), they put themselves at great risk if they keep the loans themselves. Because the checks on a person’s credit history wasn’t very strict, interest rates were low and the government encouraged people to buy houses, banks had not yet realised the risks of these loans. But these time bombs end up in the hands of FNMA and FHLMC when they unknowingly buy the bad mortgages (as well as good ones) off the loaner to replenish their funds. It’s found that FNMA and FHLMC owned $1.4 trillion or 40% of all American mortgages in which $168 billion were subprime mortgages.

Most of the time, the mortgages bought by FNMA and FHLMC are packed and sold as an investment product (e.g. a bond) to other investors (the public, businesses or even governments from other countries). Investors who end up buying the product made from a bad loan could end up losing a lot of money.

When some of the original homebuyers’ loans started defaulting because they had not enough income to pay their mortgages and banks began repossessing houses, the companies FNMA and FHLMC lose their income and therefore cannot pay what they owe their investors. Currently unable to pay investors or buy any new loans, the situation is the root cause of the Credit Crunch. As said above, banks become more cautious, money becomes a lot harder to borrow and there is less cash flow within the economy.

When banks stop borrowing money, less people are able to loan money to buy houses. Banks begin to repossess more and more houses causing house prices to fall (which is what’s happening now). As a result of house prices falling, people who anticipated buying a house lose confidence in the housing market because they’re afraid of falling into negative equity (paying more than your house’s current market value).

Who is to Blame?
Placing the blame can be very difficult in this situation. Are banks to blame because they were making irresponsible loans and selling them on the secondary market? Was the government to blame for keeping interest rates too low which caused the banks to make subprime mortgages? Or were the subprime borrowers themselves to blame? It is in fact all these factors combined that helped develop the current financial crisis.

For example, if the reserve bank didn’t keep interest rates so low for so long, less people would want to borrow money from banks to invest in the real estate market. There would be less subprime mortgages/bad loans and maybe the housing bubble may have never happened. But even if interest rates were kept very low, if the banks had been more responsible and made stricter checks on a person’s credit history before anything bad had happened, their would also be a lot less subprime mortgages and the financial crisis would not have followed. The current chairman of the United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, Henry Waxman said that Alan Greenspan had the power to prevent what ended up as the subprime mortgage crisis by increasing the interest rates.

But not many people in the world can predict and confirm crises like this. Nouriel Roubini, a professor of economics at the University of New York predicted the coming of a financial crisis back in 2005. The following year, he announced in front of an audience of economists that there was going to be a severe recession. He said homeowners would start defaulting, and companies like Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac could be in a lot of trouble. His predictions were taken as a joke as the US economy then was still growing, though at a slower pace and Alan Greenspan’s monetary policy was still succeeding.

Effects
The crisis built up over a period of about a decade with the problem slowly accumulating over the time. When the problems start showing themselves, they never end. The effects are worldwide (see ‘Globalisation’) and many say the worst is yet to come…

Recession
Many countries in the world have gone into recession as a result of the global financial crisis. Some of these countries include: America, Japan, Germany, the Eurozone countries (for the first time in history) and the government of Iceland is already registered as bankrupt. France has narrowly scraped recession and Australia is also on the verge of recession. The bank of England stated that the world’s financial firms have lost around $2.8 trillion dollars in this crisis.

Debt and Bankruptcy
Bankruptcy cases today have increased by record numbers. In the past five months, bankruptcy cases in Australia have increased by around 13%. The government of America has a national debt of over $4 trillion dollars and investment analyst Marc Faber predicts that the U.S. government will bankrupt in a matter of time.

Lehman Brothers, a global financial services firm with over 150 years of history declared bankruptcy on September 14th 2008.

Currently, the Big Three motor industries Chrysler, General Motors and Ford are facing bankruptcy and are pleading the government to provide $25 billion dollars to save them. Their number of sales per annum has been reduced by almost half every year because of the lack of loans from banks to potential car buyers.

Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are currently facing bankruptcy and will become bankrupt if the government doesn’t take action to save them. The government cannot allow the two massive companies to bankrupt because they take up too much of the housing market. If they do, the U.S. economy will suffer a big loss and the whole financial system will fall apart.

Citigroup, a worldwide bank even larger and older than Lehman brothers is also facing bankruptcy. Like Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, the government cannot afford to let them fail because it will have a negative effect globally. The government has already agreed to inject $20 billion dollars into the company. Although, Bernie Sanders, a senator from Vermont believes in his statement that ‘A company that is too big to fail is too big to exist’ and the government should purposely let a major company fail to send the message to others in the future that no-body is going to save you from your own reckless behaviour. He believes it will help prevent a similar crisis from happening in the future.

Unemployment
Unemployment rates are increasing all over the world due to an increase of redundancies. The credit crunch suppresses companies from functioning and cash flow in the economy stops. Companies layoff people because they have no further need for them or cannot afford to keep them employed. As unemployment rates increase, so does the severity of the crisis. The U.S. economy depends on households consuming. When more and more people become unemployed, there is less money spent and so you get what’s called positive feedback.
· On May 6th 2008, Swiss bank declared that it would layoff 5 500 people by the middle of 2009
· Oxford economics is predicting that in London alone, 194 000 jobs will be lost in the next two years
· The Big Three have shed tens of thousands of people from their workforce in the last decade
· 1.2 million Jobs have been lost this year

Globalisation
Globalisation is the process in which the crisis spreads from one country to the rest of the world. The countries majorly affected by America’s economy breakdown are: China, Japan and Australia. China’s economy largely depends on exports to America and in return, China buys government bonds from America to replenish their funds. This relationship between America and China is a one way benefit for China because the American economy is constantly losing money. America has the same relationship with Japan. The governments of China and Japan are also the largest foreign holders of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac bonds.

The next country in the chain is Australia. Australia’s economy largely depends on mineral exports to China for them to manufacture products. The high demand for minerals caused the mineral boom in Australia in the early 2000’s. When America stops importing from China, the growth of their economy slows down and they have no further need for new minerals. They stop importing minerals from Australia resulting in the end of out mineral boom.

Solution
Currently, there is no step by step solution to the crisis. Opinions on how to solve the crisis vary from the government taking major action in saving companies to leaving the market to correct itself. Only time will tell whose solutions to the problem will be right or wrong.

Government intervention
The U.S. government has already taken action to battle the financial crisis. The Bush administration has passed the $700 billion bail plan to save banks from collapsing. Different economists have different views on how the bail out should be used. George Soros, one of the greatest investors of his time believes that the bail out plan should be used to fix the mortgage crisis by re-capitalising banks instead of the original plan to buy bad mortgages off banks. The bail out will also be used to save

Soros believes that solving the mortgage crisis is first priority and to do that we need to slow the decline of house prices. His solution is to decrease the amount of foreclosures (repossessions by banks because of the borrower’s loan defaulting) by having banks negotiate mortgages with people instead of repossessing houses. If banks stop foreclosing houses, it will mean their will are less houses on the market and banks will not be so desperate trying to sell the houses again at lower prices.

Future president Barack Obama proposes to create 2.5 million new jobs by 2011. The jobs will create income for households and hopefully encourage more spending in the economy. The jobs will be created through establishing new projects like rebuilding roads and bridges, or investing into building alternate energy plants. These projects not only benefit the crisis, but it also benefits the economy in the long run. Investing in alternate energy is the first step towards diverging the economy’s reliance on foreign oil.

No Government intervention
However, Bernie Sanders is not in favour of the bail out plan. The money for the bail out comes from the hard working middle class people. He believes using their money to save banks from their own reckless actions is unjustified and that the money for the bail out should come from the people who have benefited from the banks’ reckless behaviour. Bernie Sanders is not alone in the argument against the bail out. Economist Jeffrey Miron believes that passing the bail out plan was the wrong decision and bankruptcy is the right solution to the crisis. Having companies bankrupt will take away the ones that have been careless with their lending and preserve the more responsible ones. Without the companies who would make risky loans in the future, there will be a lower chance of having another crisis.

Nouriel Roubini believes that it is impossible for the U.S. government to fix the financial crisis. He says that government intervention is necessary only for political reasons. With $4 trillion dollars of debt themselves, saving the economy from collapse will be just about impossible.

Similarly to Roubini, Marc Faber also has a pessimistic view on the bail out plan. He says, “A bailout will not buy the US a way out. The government is less powerful than markets in fixing this mess.” Compared with the dozens of trillions of dollars on the market, 700 billion is just too insignificant to do anything.

Conclusion
This financial crisis was caused by many factors put together. The irresponsibility of banks and the failure of Alan Greenspan’s monetary policy resulted in the worst recession after the Great Depression. The crisis is affecting the whole world with more and more countries going into recession. It will take a long time for countries to recover and governments are desperately trying to prevent any more losses of money. The solution to the crisis is debatable and nobody knows which is correct. We need to find a different way of regulating our economies to prevent a similar, if not worse financial crisis from happening in the future.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

www.globalization101.org/index.php?file=news1&id=128
“Root cause of the Financial Crisis”, [2008], WiseBread, www.wisebread.com/root-cause-of-the-financial-crisis
“Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and the Subprime Mortgage Crisis”, [2008], useconomy.about.com/od/grossdomesticproduct/tp/Subprime_Mortgages_FNMA.htm
“List of Countries in Recession”, [2008], Friggin Loon, frigginloon.com/tag/list-of-countries-in-recession/
“Credit crisis could cost 194,000 London jobs”, [2008], Banking Times, www.bankingtimes.co.uk/29102008-credit-crisis-could-cost-194000-london-jobs/
“The Industry”, [2008], Fannie Mae, www.fanniemae.com/aboutfm/industry/index.jhtml?p=About+Fannie+Mae&s=The+Industry
“Greenspan Concedes to `Flaw' in His Market Ideology”, [2008], Bloomberg, www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601087&sid=ah5qh9Up4rIg&refer=home
“Statistics”, [2008], ITSA, www.itsa.gov.au/dir228/itsaweb.nsf/docindex/about+us-%3Estatistics-%3Estatistics?opendocument
“Commentary: Bankruptcy, not bailout, is the right answer”, [2008], CNN Politics, edition.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/09/29/miron.bailout/index.html
“What should be done about the financial Markets?”, [2008], The Heritage Foundation”, www.heritage.org/research/economy/wm2070.cfm
“Let Risk Taking Institutions fail”, [2008], Time, www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,1845209,00.html?cnn=yes
“Dr. Doom”, [2008], The New York Times, www.nytimes.com/2008/08/17/magazine/17pessimist-t.html?pagewanted=print
“Marc Faber disses the bail out plan, like the dollar”, [2008], Aurora Advisors
www.nakedcapitalism.com/2008/10/marc-faber-disses-bailout-plan-likes.html
“Wall Street Bail out Explained”, [2008], The New York Times www.nytimes.com/2008/09/21/business/21qanda.html?em
“Nouriel Roubini: I fear the worst is yet to come”, [2008], Times Online business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/economics/article5014463.ece
“Eurozone officially sinks into recession”, [2008], ABC www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/11/15/2420576.htm
“Video: Obama’s Plan for 2 million jobs by 2011”, [2008], Time, www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1861330,00.html
“Bill Moyer’s Journal”, [2008], Public Affairs Television
www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/10102008/watch.html

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Biomechanics

Biomechanics is the science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effects produced by these forces. At the highest levels of sports in which techniques play a major role, improvement comes so often from careful attention to detail that no coach can afford to leave these details to chance or guesswork. For such coaches knowledge of biomechanics might be regarded as essential.
Kinematics

Kinematics is the branch of biomechanics concerned with the study of movement with reference to the amount of time taken to carry out the activity.

Distance and displacement

Distance and displacement are quantities used to describe the extent of a body's motion. Distance is the length of the path a body follows and displacement is the length of a straight line joining the start and finish points e.g. in a 400m race on a track the length of the path the athlete follows (distance) is 400m but their displacement will be zero metres (they finish where they start).
Speed and velocity

Speed and velocity describe the rate at which a body moves from one location to another. These two terms are often thought, incorrectly, to be the same. Average speed of a body is obtained by dividing the distance by the time taken where as the average Velocity is obtained by dividing the displacement by the time taken e.g. consider a swimmer in a 50m race in a 25m length pool who completes the race in 60 seconds - distance is 50m and displacement is 0m (swimmer is back where they started) so speed is 50/60= 0.83m/s and velocity is 0/60=0 m/s

* Speed and Velocity = distance traveled ÷ time taken

Acceleration

Acceleration is defined as the rate at which velocity changes with respect to time.

* average acceleration = (final velocity - initial velocity) ÷ elapsed time

From Newton's 2nd law:

* Force = Mass x Acceleration
* Acceleration = Force ÷ Mass

If the mass of a sprinter is 70kg and the force exerted on the starting blocks is 700N then acceleration = 700 ÷ 70 = 10 msec²
Acceleration due to gravity

Whilst a body is in the air it is subject to a downward acceleration, due to gravity, of approximately 9.81m/s²
Vectors and scalars

Distance and speed can be described in terms of magnitude and are known as scalars. Displacement, velocity and acceleration that require magnitude and direction are known as vectors.
Components of a vector
Figure 1
Figure 1 Figure 2
Figure 2

Let us consider the horizontal and vertical components of velocity of the shot in Figure 1.

Figure 2 indicates the angle of release of the shot at 35° and the velocity at release as 12 m/sec.

* Vertical component Vv = 12 x sin 35° = 6.88 m/sec
* Horizontal component Vh = 12 x cos 35° = 9.82 m/sec

Let us now consider the distance the shot will travel horizontally (its displacement).

Range (R) = ((v² × sinØ × cosØ) + (v × cosØ × sqrt((v × sinØ)² + 2gh))) ÷ g

Where v = 12, Ø = 35, h = 2m (height of the shot above the ground at release) and g = 9.81

* R = ((12² × sin35 × cos35) + (12 × cos35 × sqrt((12 × sin35)² + 2x9.81x2))) ÷ 9.81
* R = 16.22m

The time of flight of the shot can be determined from the equation (2 × v × sinØ) ÷ g

* Time of flight = (2 x 12 x sin 35) ÷ 9.81 = 1.4 seconds

Uniformly accelerated motion

When a body experiences the same acceleration throughout some interval of time, its acceleration is said to be constant or uniform. In these circumstances, the following equations apply:

* Final velocity = initial velocity + (acceleration x time)
* Distance = (initial velocity x time) + (½ x acceleration x time²)

Moment of force (torque)

The moment of force or torque is defined as the application of a force at a perpendicular distance to a joint or point of rotation.
Angular Kinematics
Angular distance and displacement

When a rotating body moves from one position to another, the angular distance through which it moves is equal to the length of the angular path. The angular displacement that a rotating body experiences is equal in magnitude to the angle between the initial and final position of the body.

Angular movement is usually expressed in radians where 1 radian = 57.3°
Angular speed, velocity and acceleration

* Angular speed = angular displacement ÷ time
* Angular velocity = angular displacement ÷ time
* Angular acceleration = (final angular velocity - initial angular velocity) ÷ time

Angular Momentum

Angular momentum is defined as: angular velocity x moment of inertia

The angular momentum of a system remains constant throughout a movement provided nothing outside the system acts with a turning moment on it. This is known as the Law Conservation of Angular Momentum. In simple terms, this means that if a skater, when already spinning, changes their moment of inertia (they move their arms out to the side) then the rate of spin will change but the angular momentum will stay the same.

Linear Kinetics

Kinetics is concerned with what causes a body to move the way it does.
Momentum, inertia, mass, weight and force

* Momentum: mass x velocity
* Inertia: the resistance to acceleration - reluctance of a body to change whatever it is doing
* Mass: the quantity of matter of which a body is composed of - not affected by gravity - measured in kilograms (kg)
* Weight: force due to gravity - is mass x gravity (9.81m/s²)
* Force: a pushing a pulling action that causes a change of state (rest/motion) of a body - is proportional to mass x acceleration - is measured in Newtons (N) where 1N is the force that will produce an acceleration of 1 m/s² in a body of 1kg mass

The classification of forces, external or internal, depends on the definition of the 'system'. In biomechanics, the body is seen as the 'system' so any force exerted by one part of the system on another is known as an internal force all other forces are external.
Newton's Laws of Motion

* First Law: Every body continues in its state of rest or motion in a straight line unless compelled to change that state by external forces exerted upon it.
* Second Law: The rate of change of momentum of a body is proportional to the force causing it and the change takes place in the direction in which the force acts
* Third Law: To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction OR for every force that is exerted by one body on another there is an equal and opposite force exerted by the second body on the first

Newton's law of gravitation

* Any two particles of matter attract one another with a force directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them

Work, Energy and Power

Kinetic energy is mechanical energy possessed by any moving object. An equation for Kinetic Energy can be derived from the work definition:

* Work = force x distance moved in the direction of the force

Kinetic Energy = ½ x mass x velocity² (result is in joules)

Power is defined as the rate at which energy is used or created from other forms

* Power = energy used ÷ time taken
* Power = (force x distance) ÷ time taken
* Power = force x velocity

Angular Kinetics
Translation and couple

A force that acts through the centre of a body result in only translation. A force whose line of action does not pass through the body's centre of gravity is called an eccentric force and results in translation and rotation.

Example - if you push through the centre of an object it will move forward in the direction of the force (translation) if you push to one side of the object (eccentric force) it will move forward and rotate.

A couple is an arrangement of two equal and opposite forces that cause a body to rotate.
Levers

A lever is a rigid structure, hinged at one point and to which forces are applied at two other points. The hinge or pivot point is known as the fulcrum. One of the forces that act on the lever is known as the weight that opposes movement and the other is the force that causes movement. For more details see the page on Levers.
Bernoulli Effect

Lift forces interact with objects in flight and are caused by the aerodynamic shape of the object. If an object has a curved top and flat bottom (wing of an aircraft), the air will have further to travel over the top than the bottom. For the two airflows to reach the back of the object at the same time the air flowing over the top of the object will have to flow faster. This means that there will be less pressure above the object (air is thinner) than below it and the object will lift. This is often referred to as the Bernoulli effect.

Additional Information
Associated Links

Sport biomechanics
Biomechanics for athletics
Applied sports biomechanics
Biomechanics of human movement
Biomechanics in relation to sport training
Biomechanics of throwing
Principles of biomechanics
Sports specific biomechanics
Biomechanics of the human body
Associated Pages

The following Sports Coach pages should be read in conjunction with this page:

* Articles on Skill training
* Biomechanics
* Levers
* Running Economy
* Skill Development
* Skill Classification
* Skill, Technique and Ability

* Training Books
* Training Products

Associated Books

The following books provide more information related to this topic:

* The Biomechanics of Sports Technique, J.G. Hay, ISBN 0 13 084534 5
* Advanced Studies in Physical Education and Sport, P Beashel et al., ISBN 0 17 4482345
* Physical Education and the Study of Sport, B. Davis et al., ISBN 0 7234 31752
* Essentials of Exercise Physiology, W.D. McArdle et al., ISBN 0 683 30507 7
* Physical Education and Sport Studies, D. Roscoe et al., ISBN 1 901424 20 0
* The World of Sport Examined, P. Beashel et al., ISBN 0 17 438719 9
* Advanced PE for Edexcel, F. Galligan et al., ISBN 0 435 50643 9
* Examining Physical Education, K. Bizley, ISBN 0 435 50660 9
* Sport and PE, K Wesson et al., ISBN 0 340 683821
* PE for you, J. Honeybourne, ISBN 0 7487 3277 2

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Ow (digraph)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Ow is a digraph found in many languages.

In English, "ow" usually represents the /aʊ/ sound as in coward, sundowner, and now or the /oʊ/ sound, as in froward, landowner, and know. An exceptional pronunciation is /ɒ/ or /ɑː/ in knowledge and rowlock. There are many English heteronyms distinguished only by the pronunciation of this digraph, like: bow (front of ship or weapon), bower (a dwelling or string player), lower (to frown or drop), mow (to grimace or cut), row (a dispute or line-up), shower (rain or presenter), sow (a pig or to seed), tower (a building or towboat).
[hide]
v • d • e
Latin alphabet
Digraphs

a’ aa ae ãe ah ai ãi ái aí aî am âm an än ân ån ão ao aq au aû aw ay 'b bb bd bh bp bz cg ch čh ci ck cn cö cs ct cu cz 'd dc dd dg dh dj dl dł dq dr dt dx dy dz dž dź dż e’ ea éa eá ee eh ei éi eî em ém êm en én ên ɛn eo eq eu eû ew ey ff fh gb gc ge gg gh għ gi gj gk gl gm gn gñ gq gr gu gü gw ǥw gx gy hh hj hl hm hn hs hu hw hx i’ ie ig ih ii ij il im ím in ín în io ío iq iu iú ix jh jj jö kg kh kj kk kl kn kp kr ku kw ḵw ky lh lj ll l·l ly mb mf mg mh ml mn mp mv n’ nb nc nd ng ńg ñg nh nj nk nn np nq nr ns nt nw nx ny nz o’ oa oe oê õe oh oi ói oí oî on om ôm ön ôn ɔn oo oq ou oû ow oy oŷ øy œu pf ph pl pn pp ps pt qg qh qu rd rh rl rn rr rs rt rz sc sç sh ſh si sj sk sl ss sv sy sz tc tg th ti tj tl tł tr ts tt tx ty tz u’ uc ue ug uh ui úi uí um úm un ún ün uo uq ur uu uw vh vv wh wr wu xg xh xi xö xu xw x̱w xy 'y yh yi yk ym yn yr yu yy zh zs zv zz
Trigraphs

aai abh adh aei agh aim ain aío amh aoi aon aou aoû aqh bhf c'h chh chj chs ddh dlh dsh dtc dzh dzv dzs eai eái eau ein eoi eqh geü ghj ghw gli gni guë güe gqh hhw hml hny idh igh ign ilh ill iqh iúi jyu khu khw lli nch ndl ndz ng’ ngb ngc ngg ngh ngk ngq ngw ngx nkc nkh nkp nkq nkx nph npl nqh nrh ntc nth ntl nts ntx nyh nyk nzv obh odh oen ogh oin oío omh ooi oqh plh qx’ rnd rrh sch sci sh' skj ssi sth stj tcg tch ths tlh tsg tsh tsj tsv tth txh tyh uío uqh urr xhw
Tetragraphs

abha adha agha aidh aigh amha chth dsch eabh eadh eamh eeuw eidh eigh ieuw illi gqx’ ndlh nplh ntsh ntxh nyng obha odha ogha oidh oigh omha ough phth thsh tsch
Pentagraphs

abhai adhai aghai amhai eabha eadha eamha eidhi eighi obhai odhai oghai oidhi oighi omhai tzsch
Hexagraphs

eabhai eadhai eamhai eidhea eighea oidhea oighea
This writing system-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ow_(digraph)"
Categories: Writing system stubs | Digraphs
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Anonymous said...

[隱藏]
當您需要維基百科的時候,它總在您身邊。——現在它需要您的幫助!
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目標:$6,000,000
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丁姓
维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳转到: 导航, 搜索
百家姓 22: 经房裘缪 干解应宗
23: 丁宣贲邓 郁单杭洪
24: 包诸左石 崔吉钮龚

丁姓在《百家姓》排第177位,中国大陆第48大姓(2007年统计数据)。

[编辑] 名人

* 丁肇中:美国物理学家。
* 丁汝昌:清朝军事家。
* 丁俊晖:中国桌球运动员。
* 丁关根:中国政治人物。
* 丁盛:中国军事人物。
* 丁文江:中国地质学家。
* 丁磊:中国企业家。
* 丁西林:清朝物理学家。
* 丁原:三国政治人物。
* 丁日昌:清朝政治人物。
* 丁石孙:中国数学家。
* 丁祖诒:中国教育家。
* 丁继嗣:明朝政治人物。
* 丁敬:清代篆刻家。
* 丁颖:中国农学家。
* 丁光训:中国宗教人士。
* 丁渝洲:民国军事人物。
* 丁惟汾:民国政治人物。
* 丁一权:韩国政治人物。
* 丁学良:中国社会学家。
* 丁守中:民国政治人物。
* 丁济美:民国政治人物。
* 丁子霖:六四事件天安門母親運動組織發起人。
* 越南丁朝皇族:
o 丁部领、丁璇
* 丁家柱:港澳著名馬主。

中国大陆首一百个姓氏(2007年) 王 李 张 刘 陈 杨 黄 赵 吴 周
徐 孙 马 朱 胡 郭 何 高 林 罗
郑 梁 谢 宋 唐 许 韩 冯 邓 曹
彭 曾 蕭 田 董 袁 潘 于 蒋 蔡
余 杜 叶 程 苏 魏 吕 丁 任 沈
姚 卢 姜 崔 鍾 谭 陆 汪 范 金
石 廖 贾 夏 韦 傅 方 白 邹 孟
熊 秦 邱 江 尹 薛 阎 段 雷 侯
龙 史 陶 黎 贺 顾 毛 郝 龚 邵
万 钱 严 覃 武 戴 莫 孔 向 汤
台灣首一百個姓氏
(2007年6月)
(溫、温,黃、黄,龐、龎,高、髙等分別統計排序) 陳 林 黃 張 李 王 吳 劉 蔡 楊
許 鄭 謝 郭 洪 邱 曾 廖 賴 徐
周 葉 蘇 莊 呂 江 何 蕭 羅 高
潘 簡 朱 鍾 彭 游 詹 胡 施 沈
余 盧 趙 梁 顏 柯 翁 魏 孫 戴
方 宋 范 鄧 杜 傅 侯 曹 薛 丁
卓 馬 董 唐 藍 蔣 石 温 古 紀
姚 黄 連 馮 歐 程 湯 康 田 姜
汪 白 鄒 尤 巫 鐘 涂 阮 龔 黎
韓 嚴 袁 金 童 陸 夏 柳 凃 邵


這是與姓氏相關的小作品。你可以通过编辑或修订扩充其内容。
来自“http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E4%B8%81%E5%A7%93”
分类: 中文姓氏 | 丁姓
1个隐藏分类: 姓氏小作品
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* 最后更改 2008年10月1日 (星期三) 03:32。
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Anonymous said...

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𐌲𐌿𐌸
𐌰𐍄 𐍅𐌹𐌺𐌹𐍀𐌴𐌳𐌾𐌰, 𐍃𐍉 𐍆𐍂𐌹𐌾𐍉 𐌴𐌲𐌺𐌴𐌹𐌺𐌻𐍉𐍀𐌴𐌳𐌾𐌰
Gaggan at: seidogawiss, sokeiþ

𐌲𐌿𐌸 𐌱𐌹 𐌲𐌰𐌻𐌰𐌿𐌱𐌴𐌹𐌽 𐌼𐌰𐌽𐌰𐌲𐌴𐌹𐌽𐍃 𐍆𐌹𐌻𐌿 𐌹̈𐍃𐍄 𐍃𐌿𐌼𐍃, 𐌹̈𐌶𐌴𐌹 𐌲𐌰𐍃𐌺𐍉𐍀𐌾𐌹𐌸 𐌾𐌰𐌷 𐍅𐌰𐌻𐌰𐌹𐌸 𐌰𐌹𐍂𐌸𐌰.

latin alphabet version (may not be up to date)
Niman fram "http://got.wikipedia.org/wiki/%F0%90%8C%B2%F0%90%8C%BF%F0%90%8C%B8"
𐌺𐌿𐌽𐌾𐌰: 𐌲𐌿𐌳𐌰
Siuneis

* 𐍃𐌴𐌹𐌳𐍉
* 𐌲𐌰𐍅𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌳𐌾𐌰
* 𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌾𐌰𐌽
* 𐌰𐌹𐍂𐌹𐍃 𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹𐌽𐍃

Waírleiks brukwaíhts

* Atgaggan / Galangjan Niutandis

𐍃𐌴𐌹𐌳𐍉𐌲𐌰𐍅𐌹𐍃𐍃

* 𐌷𐌰𐌿𐌱𐌹𐌳𐌰𐍃𐌴𐌹𐌳𐍉
* 𐌱𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌲𐍃 𐌲𐌰𐍅𐌹
* 𐌱𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌲𐍃 𐌱𐍂𐌿𐌽𐌽𐌰
* 𐌰𐍆𐍄𐌿𐌼𐌹𐍃𐍄𐍉𐍃 𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹𐌽𐌴𐌹𐍃
* 𐍃𐌻𐌿𐌼𐍀𐌼𐌰𐍃𐍃𐌹𐌲 𐍃𐌴𐌹𐌳𐍉
* 𐌷𐌹𐌻𐍀𐌰
* 𐌷𐌹𐌻𐍀𐌰 𐍅𐌹𐌺𐌹𐍀𐌴𐌳𐌾𐌰

𐍃𐍉𐌺𐌴𐌹𐌸

𐍄𐌰𐌿𐌹 𐌰𐍂𐌺𐌰

* 𐍈𐌰𐍂𐌾𐌹𐍃 𐍃𐌴𐌹𐌳𐍉𐌽𐌰 𐌷𐌻𐌰𐌲𐌺𐌾𐌰𐌽𐌳 𐌷𐌹𐌳𐍂𐌴
* Máideinlieks
* 𐌿𐍃𐍃𐌹𐌽𐌳𐍃𐌴𐌹𐌳𐍉𐍃
* Driusan seido
* Áweins táiknjabandi
* Cite this page

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* This page was last modified on 11 Weinmenoþs 2008, at 15:55.
* Content is available under GNU Free Documentation License.
* Anasila witoþ
* 𐌹𐌿𐌱𐌰𐌹𐍂 𐍅𐌹𐌺𐌹𐍀𐌴𐌳𐌾𐌰
* Afaikan witoþ

Anonymous said...

[Thu nhỏ]
Wikipedia: Làm cho cuộc sống dễ dàng hơn.
Quyên góp ngay »
[Mở rộng]
Hãy hỗ trợ Wikipedia: một dự án phi lợi nhuận.
Quyên góp ngay »
[Mở rộng]
Hãy hỗ trợ Wikipedia: một dự án phi lợi nhuận. — Quyên góp ngay
Thiên Chúa
Bách khoa toàn thư mở Wikipedia
Bước tới: menu, tìm kiếm

Khái niệm về một Đấng Tối Cao là đa dạng, với các tên gọi khác nhau phụ thuộc vào cách nhìn nhận của con người về vị thần này, từ Brahma (Đại Ngã, Phạm Thiên) của Ấn Độ giáo, Waheguru của đạo Sikh, Jah của phong trào Rastafari cho đến YAWEH của Do Thái giáo, Allah của Hồi giáo và Thiên Chúa của Cơ Đốc giáo. Tóm lại, hầu như có bao nhiêu tôn giáo là có bấy nhiêu cách giải thích về sự hiện hữu, bản thể và các thuộc tính của thực thể tối thượng này. Tuy nhiên, ở đây chỉ đề cập đến khái niệm độc thần về Thiên Chúa.
Mục lục
[ẩn]

* 1 Sơ lược
* 2 Thần học
* 3 Các khái niệm về Thiên Chúa
o 3.1 Do Thái giáo, Cơ Đốc giáo và Hồi giáo
o 3.2 Kinh Thánh
+ 3.2.1 Thiên Chúa là Đấng Tạo hóa
+ 3.2.2 Thiên Chúa là Đấng Cứu rỗi
* 4 Chú thích
* 5 Xem thêm
* 6 Liên kết ngoài

[sửa] Sơ lược

* Tuy thuật ngữ Thiên Chúa (God) được dùng để chỉ một Đấng Tối Cao, lại có nhiều định nghĩa khác nhau về Thiên Chúa:
* Nhiều hệ thống tôn giáo và triết học xem Thiên Chúa là đấng tạo dựng toàn thể vũ trụ.
* Nhiều người tin rằng Đấng Tạo Hoá đang bảo tồn vũ trụ mà mình đã dựng nên, trong khi những người khác cho rằng Thiên Chúa không còn quan tâm đến thế giới sau khi ngài hoàn thành công cuộc sáng tạo.
* Quan điểm được nhiều người chấp nhận nhất tin rằng Thiên Chúa là đấng toàn năng, toàn tri và nhân từ, trong khi nhiều người khác theo đuổi ý tưởng cho rằng sự hiểu biết hạn hẹp của con người không cho phép họ đạt đến bất kỳ nhận thức đầy đủ và chân xác nào về Thiên Chúa, và một số truyền thống thần bí cho rằng quyền bính của Thiên Chúa là có giới hạn, nếu không, họ lập luận, sẽ không còn chỗ cho sự lựa chọn của con người.
* Khái niệm về một Thiên Chúa duy nhất là đặc điểm của độc thần giáo, dù các tôn giáo thuộc khuynh hướng này vẫn chưa đồng ý với nhau về một định nghĩa chung về Thiên Chúa.
* Người ta tìm thấy trong một số khái niệm về Thiên Chúa dấu vết của những nỗ lực tìm cách gán cho Thiên Chúa các tính chất, phái tính và danh hiệu của con người cũng như tính ưu việt của một chủng tộc nào đó.
* Một số khái niệm miêu tả Thiên Chúa là Thực Thể tối cao, vĩnh tồn và siêu nhiên, vượt lên trên thế giới đa dạng và biến dịch.
* Khái niệm về Thiên Chúa thường được nối kết với các nguyên tắc về hệ thống chân lý và nền đạo đức có giá trị tuyệt đối.
* Nhiều người xem Thiên Chúa là một thân vị với các thuộc tính được hiển lộ, trong khi những người khác nghĩ về ngài như một quyền lực thần bí, mơ hồ và xa cách. Cũng còn nhiều tra vấn về khả năng hiện hữu một mối quan hệ giữa Thiên Chúa và con người, dẫn đến vô số cung cách khác nhau giúp con người thờ phụng hoặc tìm cách làm vui lòng Chúa.
* Trong khi một số người tin rằng khái niệm về Thiên Chúa của họ là chân xác và tối hậu, thì những người khác chấp nhận sự khả dĩ có nhiều định nghĩa khác nhau về Thiên Chúa và tất cả đều hướng về một chân lý.

[sửa] Thần học

Thần học nghiên cứu các niềm tin tôn giáo. Nhà thần học tìm cách giảng giải hoặc hệ thống hóa các niềm tin. Nhà thần học thường đặt các câu hỏi như: Bản thể của Thiên Chúa là gì? Tính duy nhất của Thiên Chúa có ý nghĩa gì? Tính nhị nguyên hoặc ba ngôi, theo cách người ta tin, hàm ý điều gì? Thiên Chúa là siêu nhiên hay hiện hữu nội tại trong thiên nhiên, hay là sự pha trộn của cả hai? Mối quan hệ giữa Thiên Chúa và vũ trụ cũng như mối quan hệ giữa Thiên Chúa và con người xảy ra như thế nào?

Thuyết hữu thần (theism) cho rằng Thiên Chúa vừa siêu nhiên vừa hiện hữu nội tại, như thế, bằng một cách nào đó, Chúa có mặt trong tiến trình vận hành thế giới. Đa số người Cơ Đốc tin rằng Thiên Chúa vĩnh tồn và hiện diện khắp mọi nơi. Họ tin rằng Thiên Chúa là toàn năng, toàn tri và nhân từ, song niềm tin này gợi lên những tra vấn về trách nhiệm của Thiên Chúa đối với tội ác và đau khổ xảy ra trên thế giới,[1] mặc dù nhiều tín hữu Cơ Đốc tin rằng sự đau khổ và bất hạnh là hệ quả tất yếu của tội lỗi và sự chọn lựa của con người khước từ tình yêu của Thiên Chúa,[2] vì theo quan điểm này, Thiên Chúa là nguồn của sự sống và phước hạnh viên mãn.

Ngược lại, thuyết hữu thần mở (open theism) cho rằng Thiên Chúa có những hạn chế. Nhìn chung, "thuyết hữu thần" thường được dùng để chỉ bất kỳ niềm tin nào vào một hoặc nhiều thần linh (độc thần hay đa thần).

Thần giáo (Deism) miêu tả Thiên Chúa là siêu nhiên, nhưng Chúa không can thiệp vào thế giới sau khi tạo dựng nó. Thiên Chúa là một vị thần mơ hồ và xa cách, do đó, không có lời cầu nguyện nào được nhận, cũng không có cơ hội cho phép mầu.

Độc thần giáo tin rằng chỉ có một Thiên Chúa và con người phải thờ phụng ngài. Dù vậy, trong vòng họ, người thuộc tôn giáo này thường không chấp nhận thực thể được thờ phụng của tôn giáo khác. Người Cơ Đốc không xem Allah của Hồi giáo là Thiên Chúa hoặc người Do Thái giáo không chấp nhận đấng Messiah của Cơ Đốc giáo (Chúa Giê-xu) là Chúa của mình. Ngược lại, các tôn giáo phương Đông và những người theo trào lưu tự do (liberalism) trong Cơ Đốc giáo xem mọi tôn giáo là cùng thờ phụng một Thiên Chúa.

[sửa] Các khái niệm về Thiên Chúa

[sửa] Do Thái giáo, Cơ Đốc giáo và Hồi giáo

Ba tôn giáo này tin rằng Thiên Chúa là đấng tự hữu, hằng hữu, là đấng tạo hóa và đấng tể trị toàn thể vũ trụ. Theo quan điểm này, những thuộc tính của Thiên Chúa là thánh khiết (tinh tuyền và tách biệt khỏi tội lỗi), công chính (công bình, ngay thẳng và chân thật trong mọi đoán xét), tể trị (không gì cản trở được ý chí của Chúa), toàn năng (không gì mà Chúa không thể làm được), toàn tri (không gì mà Chúa không biết), yêu thương, và hiện diện khắp mọi nơi.

Quan điểm này miêu tả Thiên Chúa là vô hình, có thân vị, ngài là nguồn của mọi nghĩa vụ đạo đức, và là thực thể tối cao con người có thể nhận biết được.[3] Trong các mức độ khác nhau, những thuộc tính này được trình bày bởi các học giả tiên khởi của Do Thái giáo, Cơ Đốc giáo và Hồi giáo, trong đó có Augustine,[4] Al-Ghazali,[5] và Maimonides.[4]

[sửa] Kinh Thánh

Kinh Thánh Hêbrơ của Do Thái giáo cũng là Cựu Ước của Cơ Đốc giáo miêu tả Thiên Chúa theo các thuộc tính sau: "Chúa là Thiên Chúa nhân từ, thương xót, chậm giận, đầy dẫy ân huệ và thành thực, ban ơn đến ngàn đời, xoá điều gian ác, tội trọng và tội lỗi, nhưng chẳng kể kẻ có tội là vô tội, và nhân tội tổ phụ phạt đến con cháu trải ba bốn đời" (Exodus 34. 6-7).

[sửa] Thiên Chúa là Đấng Tạo hóa

Chương đầu tiên của Kinh Thánh được dùng để ký thuật công cuộc sáng tạo của Thiên Chúa. Theo Kinh Thánh, Thiên Chúa tạo dựng vũ trụ.[6] Ngoài ngài không có sự hiện hữu. Thiên Chúa tạo nên mọi vật,[7] nhưng chỉ có ngài là đấng tự hữu.[8] Thiên Chúa sáng tạo vũ trụ ex nihilo, từ sự vô hình và trống không.[9] Theo Kinh Thánh, Thiên Chúa dựng nên con người, và ban cho họ quyền cai quản mọi loài trên đất.[10] Kinh Thánh cũng miêu tả các thuộc tính của Thiên Chúa như toàn năng và toàn tri.

Cựu Ước thường nhắc đến danh hiệu Chúa toàn năng, và giải thích “không có điều gì khó quá cho Ngài.” (Sáng 18: 14). Bởi vì Thiên Chúa là đấng tạo hóa, không có điều gì vượt quá năng lực của ngài, cũng không ai có đủ quyền năng để ngăn cản công việc tay ngài làm.[11]

Hai thuộc tính toàn năng và toàn tri[12] của Thiên Chúa, theo miêu tả của Kinh Thánh, liên quan mật thiết với nhau và là một phần trong quyền năng sáng tạo và bảo tồn vũ trụ.[13] Khi tỏ cho các môn đồ biết về sự quan phòng của Thiên Chúa, Giê-xu nói, “Tóc trên đầu các ngươi cũng đã đếm hết rồi.” (Matt. 10: 30). Một chỗ khác trong Tân Ước khẳng định thuộc tính này của Thiên Chúa, “Chẳng có vật nào được giấu kín trước mặt Chúa, nhưng hết thảy đều trần trụi và lộ ra trước mắt Đấng mà chúng ta phải thưa lại.” (Hêbrơ 4: 13).

[sửa] Thiên Chúa là Đấng Cứu rỗi

Trong Kinh Thánh, công cuộc sáng tạo và cứu rỗi liên quan mật thiết với nhau. Thiên Chúa dựng nên con người, yêu thương họ, và muốn ban cho họ sự sống đời đời. Theo Kinh Thánh, chương trình cứu rỗi của Thiên Chúa xuất phát từ tình yêu của ngài,[14] Sứ đồ Giăng đã miêu tả “Thiên Chúa là sự yêu thương.” (1Giăng 4:8). Khi loài người bất tuân, sa ngã, và phạm tội, họ đã xúc phạm đức công chính của Thiên Chúa, và bị đặt dưới cơn thịnh nộ và sự đoán phạt của ngài. Vì Thiên Chúa là công chính, sự cứu rỗi phải thỏa mãn sự công bình của luật pháp. Sự chết của Chúa Giê-xu trên cây thập tự để đền tội thay cho loài người, theo Kinh Thánh, là giải pháp trọn vẹn có thể đáp ứng cả tình yêu thương và đức công chính của Thiên Chúa.[13]

Tuy Kinh Thánh không miêu tả Thiên Chúa cách có hệ thống, lại cung cấp những hình ảnh thi vị về mối tương giao giữa Chúa và con người. Theo nhà thánh kinh sử học Yehezkal Kaufmann, phát kiến nền tảng của môn thần học Kinh Thánh là trình bày một Thiên Chúa không chỉ quan tâm đến con người mà còn muốn biết con người có quan tâm đến Chúa hay không. Hầu hết đều tin rằng Kinh Thánh nên được xem là quan điểm của con người về Thiên Chúa, song nhà thần học Abraham Joshua Heschel miêu tả Thiên Chúa trong Kinh Thánh theo quan điểm anthropopathic, theo đó Kinh Thánh nên được đọc theo quan điểm của Thiên Chúa về con người chứ không phải quan điểm của con người về Thiên Chúa.

Tương tự, Tân Ước không cung cấp một nền thần học có hệ thống về Thiên Chúa, nhưng là một nền thần học tiềm ẩn khi dạy rằng Thiên Chúa trở thành người trong thân vị của Chúa Giê-xu trong khi vẫn là Thiên Chúa cách trọn vẹn. Trong ý nghĩa này, Thiên Chúa trở nên một thực thể có thể nhìn thấy và chạm đến được, có thể phán dạy và hành động theo một cung cách mà con người dễ dàng cảm nhận trong khi vẫn duy trì phẩm cách siêu nhiên và vô hình của Chúa. Các khái niệm này là những bước triệt để tách rời khỏi các khái niệm về Thiên Chúa được tìm thấy trong Kinh thánh Hêbrơ, dẫn đến việc xác lập học thuyết Ba Ngôi.

[sửa] Chú thích

1. ^ Strobel, Lee (2000). The Case for Faith, p. 14, Zondervan Publishing House. ISBN 0-310-22015-7.
2. ^ Strobel, Lee (2000). The Case for Faith, p. 37, Zondervan Publishing House. ISBN 0-310-22015-7.
"[God] created the possibility of evil; people actualized that potentiality. The source of evil is not God's power but mankind's freedom. Even an all-powerful God could not have created a world in which people had genuine freedom and yet there was no potentiality for sin, because our freedom includes the possibility of sin within its own meaning. It's a self-contradiction - a meaningless nothing - to have a world where there's real choice while at the same time no possibility of choosing evil. To ask why God didn't create such a world is like asking why God didn't create colorless color or round squares." - Peter Kreeft, quoted by Strobel.
3. ^ Swinburne, R.G. "God" in Honderich, Ted. (ed)The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, Oxford University Press, 1995.
4. ^ a b Edwards, Paul. "God and the philosophers" in Honderich, Ted. (ed)The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, Oxford University Press, 1995.
5. ^ Platinga, Alvin. "God, Arguments for the Existence of," Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge, 2000.
6. ^ ”Ban đầu, Thiên Chúa dựng nên trời và đất.” – Sáng thế ký 1: 1
7. ^ ”Chỉ một mình Chúa là Yaweh có một không hai; Chúa đã dựng nên các từng trời, và trời của các từng trời, cùng toàn cơ binh của nó, trái đất và các vật ở trên nó, biển và muôn vật ở dưới nó; Chúa bảo tồn những vật ấy, và cơ binh của các từng trời đều thờ lạy Chúa.” – Nehemiah 9: 6
8. ^ ”Thiên Chúa phán rằng: Ta là đấng tự hữu hằng hữu.” – Xuất Ai cập ký 3:14
9. ^ Clark, Gordon H. (1960). Baker’s Dictionary of Theology, p. 239, Baker Book House.
10. ^ ”Thiên Chúa dựng nên loài người giống như hình Ngài; Ngài dựng nên loài người giống như hình Thiên Chúa; Ngài dựng nên người nam cùng người nữ. Thiên Chúa ban phước cho loài người và phán rằng: Hãy sinh sản, thêm nhiều, làm cho đầy dẫy đất; hãy làm cho đất phục tùng, hãy quản trị loài cá dưới biển, loài chim trên trời cùng các vật sống hành động trên mặt đất.” – Sáng thế ký 1: 27-28
11. ^ "Ngài làm theo ý mình trong cơ binh trên trời, và ở giữa cư dân trên đất; chẳng ai có thể cản tay Ngài và hỏi rằng: Ngài làm chi vậy?" – Daniel 4:35
12. ^ ”từ trước vô cùng Ngài đã thông biết những việc đó.” – Công vụ các Sứ đồ 15: 18
13. ^ a b Clark, Gordon H. (1960). Baker’s Dictionary of Theology, p. 243, Baker Book House.
14. ^ ”Vì Thiên Chúa yêu thương thế gian đến nỗi đã ban Con một của Ngài, hầu cho hễ ai tin Con ấy không bị hư mất mà được sự sống đời đời.” – Phúc âm Giăng 3: 16

[sửa] Xem thêm

* Ba Ngôi
* Độc thần giáo
* Các tôn giáo khởi nguồn từ Abraham

[sửa] Liên kết ngoài

* God - a Christian perspective
* "Nature of God" at Mormon.org
* God in Judaism on chabad.org Retrieved 2006-10-05
* Cheung, Vincent (2003). "Systematic Theology"
* Islam-info.ch (2006) Concept of God in Islam.
* Draye, Hani (2004). Concept of God in Islam. Retrieved 2005-06-26.
* Haisch, Bernard (2006). The God Theory: Universes, Zero-Point Fields and What's Behind It All.
* Jewish Literacy. Retrieved 2005-06-26.
* a look at the role of Questions about the Attributes of God in Christian faith.
* Nicholls, David (2004). DOES GOD EXIST?. Retrieved 2005-06-26.
* Salgia, Amar (1997) Creator-God and Jainism Retrieved 2005-10-18.
* Shaivam.org (2004). Hindu Concept of God. Retrieved 2005-06-26.
* Who Is God? from the Yoga point of view.
* Schlecht, Joel (2004).* Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2004). Moral Arguments for the Existence of God. Retrieved 2005-06-26.
* Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2005). God and Other Necessary Beings. Retrieved 2005-06-26.
* Catholic Encyclopedia (1909). Relation of God to the Universe. Retrieved 2007-02-28.
* Students of Shari'ah (2005). Proof Of Creator. Retrieved 2005-06-26.
* God and Science. A Christian approach to modern science.

Chủ đề Cơ Đốc giáo
Lấy từ “http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thi%C3%AAn_Ch%C3%BAa”
Thể loại: Thiên Chúa | Các tôn giáo khởi nguồn từ Abraham | Kitô giáo
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* Sửa đổi lần cuối lúc 15:19, ngày 11 tháng 10 năm 2008.
* Tất cả nội dung được phép sử dụng theo Giấy phép Tài liệu Tự do GNU (xem Quyền tác giả để biết thêm chi tiết).
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haha

Anonymous said...

[隐藏]
维基百科:令生活更便利。
现在就捐款 »
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请资助维基百科:一个非营利计划
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请资助维基百科:一个非营利计划 — 现在就捐款
汽车
维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳转到: 导航, 搜索
世界第一辆汽车
(1886年 Benz Patent Motorwagen)

汽车,即本身具有动力得以驱动,不须依轨道或电力架设,得以机动行驶之车辆。广义来说,具有四轮行驶的车辆,普遍多称为汽车。虽然,长久以来学术各界对:‘谁是第一位汽车发明者’,皆有不同的看法及论述,未有完全一致性的看法。但是,绝大部份学者皆将德国工程师卡尔·奔驰视为第一位发明者[1]。
目录
[隐藏]

* 1 汽车历史
* 2 汽
* 3 环境保护
* 4 定义与分类
o 4.1 日本
o 4.2 美国
o 4.3 德国
o 4.4 中华民国
* 5 基本构造
o 5.1 技术与结构
o 5.2 零件与附件
* 6 相关条目
* 7 参考资料
* 8 备注
* 9 外部链接

[编辑] 汽车历史

主条目:汽车历史

蒸气车

* 1629年,意大利工程师乔凡尼·白兰卡(Giovanni Branca)利用蒸气可推动涡轮叶片的原理,将蒸气动力机械装置,架设在马车上。
* 1672年,比利时传教士南怀仁在北京制造出蒸气动力机械装置,架设在马车上的三轮蒸气车[2]。
* 1766年,英国发明家詹姆斯·瓦特改良蒸气机。
* 1769年,法国工程师尼可拉斯·库纽(Nicholas Cugnot)在巴黎文森森林公园制造一辆三轮蒸气车

* 1801年,法国化学家飞利浦·勒本(Philips Lebon)成功研发以煤气和氢气为燃料的二冲程发动机。
* 1866年,德国工程师尼古拉斯·奥图(Nikolous Otto)发明四冲程发动机。
* 1885年,德国工程师卡尔·朋驰在曼海姆制造出汽油引擎装置,架设在马车上的三轮汽车,有0.85马力汽油引擎。
* 1886年1月29日,卡尔·朋驰取得世界第一项汽车引擎专利[3]。同年7月,世界第一部四轮汽车正式贩售[4]。
* 1888年,法国商人埃米尔·罗杰斯(Emile Roger)成为世界第一位拥有汽车的人。

[编辑] 汽

主条目:汽车安全和交通事故

[编辑] 环境保护

主条目:环境保护

[编辑] 定义与分类

各国法律依汽车的使用方式、大小、功能,所付予的定义与分类 :

[编辑] 日本

定义

分类

[编辑] 美国

定义

分类

[编辑] 德国

定义

分类

[编辑] 中华民国

定义

* 中华民国〈公路法〉第一章第二条第八款指出:‘汽车指在公路及市区道路上,不依轨道或电力架设,得以原动机行驶之车辆’(含机械脚踏车)。但是,民众皆普遍指向具有四轮行驶之车辆。

分类

* 中华民国〈 道路交通安全规则〉第一章第二条指出,共分15大类。

* 汽车
* 客车
* 货车



* 客货两用车
* 代用客车
* 幼童专用车



* 特种车
* 曳引车
* 拖车



* 全拖车
* 半拖车
* 拖架



* 联结车
* 全联结车
* 半联结车


[编辑] 基本构造

说明:词汇内容选用多数汽车公司所拥有的科技词汇为对象,不计少数汽车公司的科技词汇。词汇名称与中译名称皆以台湾汽车工业或学术基构常用的美式英语名称为对象,不使用日式英语词汇。排版方式参考“英文基维”排列方式,但并非完全一致。另外,两岸三地的汽车专业词汇皆有所差异,故特意保留英文名称,以便搜寻或创建。

[编辑] 技术与结构
技术与结构
车体风格汽车种类 骨董车(Antique Car)、古典车(Classic Car)、露营车(Recreation Vehicle)、 旅行车(Sedan Wagon)、厢型车(Van)、掀背车(Hatchback)、斜背车(Notchback)、双门车(Coupe)、敞篷车(Convertible)、货卡车(Pickup Trucks)、越野车(4x4)、运动货卡车(SUT)、运动休旅车(SUV)、多功能休旅车(MPV)、厢式休旅车(Minivan)、肌肉车(Muscle Car)、微型车(Microcar)、小型车(Compact Car)、中型车(Mid-size Car)、大型车(Full-size Car)、轿车(Sedan)、货车(Trucks)、拖车(Trailer)、出租车(Taxicab)、大客车(Bus)、概念车(Concept Car)、跑车(Sports Car)、赛车(Racing Car)、超级跑车(Supercar)、国民车(Economy Car)、高级车(Luxury Car)
特殊车辆 水路两用车(Amphibious Vehicle)、无人驾驶车(Driverless Car)、飞行车(Flying Car)
燃料技术 内燃机、蒸气车(Steam Car)、电动车(Electric Vehicle)、氢气车(Hydrogen Vehicle)、混合动力车(Hybrid Vehicle)、替代燃料车(Alternative fuel Vehicle)、汽油、柴油、液化石油气、生质柴油、直接喷射(Direct Injection)、间接喷射(Indirect Injection)、汽油直接喷射(Gasoline Direct Injection;GDI)、柴油直接喷射(Diesel Direct Injection;DDI)
驱动方式 二轮驱动(2WD)、四轮驱动(4WD)、前轮驱动(Front-wheel drive;FWD)、后轮驱动(Rear-wheel drive;RWD)
引擎位置 前置引擎(Front-engine design)、前中置引擎(Front-mid-engine design)、中置引擎(Mid-engine design)、后中置引擎(Rear-mid-engine design)、后置引擎(Rear-engine design)
传动型式 前置前驱(FF layout)、前置后驱(FR layout)、前中置后驱(FMR layout)、中置后驱(MR layout)、后中置后驱(RMR layout)、后置后驱(RR layout)
引擎结构 汽油引擎、柴油引擎、火花点火、压缩点火、二冲程循环、四冲程循环、汽门挺杆式(Over Head Valve;OHV)、顶上凸轮轴式(Over Head Camshaft;OHC)、顶上双凸轮轴式(Double Over Head Camshaft;DOHC)、直列引擎(Straight engine)、往复引擎(Reciprocating engine)、水平对卧引擎(Flat engine)、转子引擎(Wankel engine)、V型引擎(V engine)、H型引擎(H engine)、W型引擎(W engine)

[编辑] 零件与附件
零件与附件
车身 结构 大梁(Frame)、副梁(Subframe)、保险杆(Bumper)、底盘(Chassis)、撞击缓冲区(Crumple zone)、挡泥板(Fender)、叶子板(Fender skirts)、水箱罩(Grille)、引擎盖(Hood)、引擎盖进气口(Hood scoop)、车柱(Pillar)、尾翼(Spoiler)
隔间 行李厢(Trunk)、引擎盖(Hood)
车门 蝴蝶车门(Butterfly doors)、鸥翼车门(Gull-wing door)、铡刀车门(Scissor doors)、对开车门(Free-Style doors)
玻璃 天窗(Sun roof)、遮阳板(Sun visor)、挡风玻璃(Windshield)、雨刷(Windscreen wiper)、挡风玻璃清洁液(Windshield washer fluid)
后视镜 后视镜(Rear mirror)、电动后视镜(Power mirrors)
其他 保险杆贴纸(Bumper sticker)、引擎盖标志(Hood ornament)
外部设备 车灯 日间行车灯(Daytime running lamp)、雾灯(Fog lamp)、大灯(Head lamp)、方向灯(Indicator)、尾灯(Taillight)、气体放电式电灯(HID)
其他 故障指示灯(Malfunction Indicator Lamp;MIL)、车距传感器(Distance sensor)、停车传感器(Park sensor)
引擎 进气 进气口(Air intake)、空气滤清器(Air filter)、节气门(Throttle)、歧管(Manifold )、歧管真空(Manifold vacuum)、流量感知器(Mass flow sensor)、增气式进气(Ram-air intake)、短增气式进气(Short ram air intake)、自然进气引擎(Naturally-aspirated engine)、电子节汽门控制(Electronic Throttle Control;ETC)、可变汽门正时(Variable Valve Timing;VVT)
燃料 燃油滤清器(Fuel Filter)、增压(Boost)、增压控制(Boost controller)、泄压阀(Blow off valve)、蝶阀(Butterfly valve)、化油器(Carburetor)、离心式机械增压器(Centrifugal-type supercharger)、涡卷式机械增压器(Scroll-type supercharger)、电子控制元件(Electronic Control Unit;ECU)、引擎控制元件(Engine Control Unit;ECU)、燃油滤清器(Fuel filter)、燃油喷射(Fuel injection)、燃油泵浦(Fuel pump)、油箱(Fuel tank)、机械增压器(Supercharger)、涡轮增压器(Turbocharger)、汽油直接喷射(Gasoline Direct Injection;GDI)、柴油直接喷射(Diesel Direct Injection;DDI)、涡轮增压直接喷射(Turbocharged Direct Injection;TDI)、可变几何涡轮增压(Variable Geometry Turbocharger;VGT)、涡轮性能自动控制(Automatic Performance Control;APC)、双涡轮(Twin-turbo)
排气 排气管(Exhaust pipe)、消音器(Muffler)、触媒转化器(Catalytic converter)、含氧感感器(Oxygen sensor)
冷却 空气冷却(Air cooling)、防冻剂(Antifreeze)、水箱(Radiator)、调温器(Thermostat)、中央冷却器(Intercooler)、乙二醇(Ethylene glycol)
起动 起动(Starter)、火星塞(Spark plug)、点火线圈(Ignition coil)、电瓶(Battery)、铅酸电池(lead acid battery)、燃料电池(Fuel cell)、分电盘(Distributor)、白金接点(Breaker points)、点火顺序(Firing order)、火星塞点火(Spark-ignition)、电子安定器(Electrical ballast)
其他 平衡轴(Balance shaft)、加热器(Block heater)、曲轴(Crank)、曲轴箱(Crankcase)、曲轴箱盖(Crankcase Cover)、汽门(Valve)、汽门座(Valve Seat)、汽门导管(Valve Guide)、凸轮(Cam)、凸轮轴(Camshaft)、连杆(Connecting rod)、燃烧室(Combustion chamber)、曲轴销(Crank pin)、引擎爆震(Engine knocking)、压缩比(Compression ratio)、曲轴感知器(Crank sensor)、汽缸(Cylinder)、汽缸体(Cylinder Block)、汽缸盖(Cylinder Head)、汽缸套(Cylinder Sleeve)、汽缸垫片(Cylinder gasket)、汽缸盖垫片(Cylinder Head gasket)、垫片(Gasket)、机油滤清器(Oil filter)、稀薄燃烧(Lean burn)、汽门挺杆式(Over Head Valve;OHV)、顶上凸轮轴式(Over Head Camshaft;OHC)、顶上双凸轮轴式(Double Over Head Camshaft;DOHC)、活塞(Piston)、活塞环(Piston ring)、活塞销(Piston Pin)、摇臂(Rocker arm)、旁道阀(Bypass Valve)、机油(Motor oil)、油泥(Oil sludge)、合成油(Synthetic oil)、矿物油(mineral oil)、全合成油(Full-Synthetic Oil)、挺杆(Tappet)、正时皮带(Timing belt)、正时记号(Timing mark)
内部设备 仪器 油表(Fuel gauge)、时速表(Speedometer)、转速表(Tachometer)、里程表(Odometer)、全球定位系统、抬头显示器
控制 方向盘(Steering wheel)、排档杆(Gear stick)、手煞车(Hand brake)、节汽门(Throttle)
防盗 锁(Lock)、钥匙(Key)、喇叭(Klaxon)
座位 扶手(Armrest)、长型座椅(Bench seat)、桶型座椅(Bucket seat)、儿童安全座椅(Child safety seat)
安全 气囊(Air-bag)、安全带(Seat belt)、儿童安全锁(Child safety lock)、汽车安全(Automobile safety)
其他 空气调节(Air conditioning)、汽车音响(Car audio)、车用电话(Car phone)、中控台(Center console)、仪表板(Dashboard)、置物箱(Glove compartment)、电动窗(Power window)
传动 车轮 车轮盖(Hubcap)、钢丝轮圈(Wire wheels)、合金轮圈(Alloy wheels)、铝合金轮圈(Aluminium alloy wheel)、镁合金轮圈(Magnesium alloy wheel)
轮胎 辐射层轮胎(Radial-ply Tire)、斜纹层轮胎(Bias-ply Tire)、斜向交织层轮胎(Bias Belted Tire)、防爆轮胎(Run-flat tire)、光头轮胎(Slick tire)、轮胎压力侦测系统(Tire Pressure Monitoring System;TPMS)
变速箱 变速箱(Transmission)、自动变速箱(Automatic transmission;AT)、手动变速箱(Manual transmission;MT)、手自排变速箱(Automatic Manual transmission;AMT)、半自动变速箱(Semi-automatic transmission)、离合器(Clutch)、万向接头(Universal joint)、差速器(Differential)、传动轴(Driveshaft)、排档杆(Gear stick)、扭力转换器(Torque converter)、太阳齿轮(Sun Gear)、行星齿轮(Planet Gear)、环形齿轮(Ring Gear)、锁定差速器(Locking differential)、防滑差速器(Limited Slip Differential;LSD)、无段自动变速箱(Continuously Variable Transmission;CVT)、变速箱控制单元(Transmission Control Unit;TCU)
转向 阿克曼转向几何(Ackermann steering geometry)、防锁死煞车系统(Anti-lock braking system;ABS)、牵引力控制系统(Traction Control System;TCS)、外倾角(Camber angle)、后倾角(Caster angle)、内倾角(King pin inclination)、前束角(Toe angle)、转向前展(Toe-out on Turn)、扭力转向(Torque steering)、转向过度(Oversteer)、转向不足(Understeer)、齿条齿轮式(Rack and pinion)、循环滚珠式(Recirclulating Ball and Nut)、动力方向盘(Power steering)
悬吊 轮轴(Axle)、弹簧(Spring)、圈状弹簧(Coil spring)、片状弹簧(Leaf spring)、双A臂悬吊系统(Double wishbone suspension)、电子稳定控制系统(Electronic Stability Control;ESC)、独立悬吊系统(Independent suspension)、液压悬吊系统(hydrolastic suspension)、麦花臣悬吊系统(MacPherson suspension)、多连杆悬吊系统(Multi-link suspension)、半拖曳悬吊系统(Semi-trailing arm suspension)、扭力轴悬吊系统(Torsion beam suspension)、大王销(Kingpin)、横拉杆(Panhard rod)、减震筒(Shock absorber)、防倾杆(Stabilizer bar)、差速器(Transaxle)、拖曳臂(Trailing arm)、非弹簧负荷重量(Unsprung weight)
煞车 防锁死煞车系统(Anti-lock Braking System;ABS)、电子制动分配系统(Electronic Brakeforce Distribution;EBD)、煞车力道辅助系统(Brake Assist System;BAS)、车身动态稳定系统(Active Stability Control;ASC)、碟式煞车(Disk Brake)、鼓式煞车(Drum Brake)、液压煞车(Hydraulic Brake)、空气煞车(Air Brake)、动力煞车(Power Brake)、引擎煞车(Engine Brake)、行车煞车(Service Brake)、停车煞车(Parking Brakes)、紧急煞车(Emergency Brake)、手煞车(Hand Brake)、煞车片(Brake Pad)、煞车油(Brake Fluid)

[编辑] 相关条目
维基共享资源中相关的多媒体资源:
汽车

* 发动机
* 汽车种类
* 车体风格
* 汽车品牌列表
* 汽车生产厂商列表

[编辑] 参考资料

* 汽车的历史

[编辑] 备注

1. ^ 灿烂耀眼的恒星 朋驰Mercedes-Benz,〈台北市汽车代理商同业公会〉
2. ^ 巨龙麾下隐没的先驱
3. ^ 世界第一项汽车专利号码:DRP-37435
4. ^ 永不止息的世界经典~Mercedes-Benz三星标志怎么来的?,〈蕃薯藤〉

[编辑] 外部链接

* 汽车,〈历史文化学习网〉
* 汽车煞车系统,〈南台科技大学〉

取自"http://zh.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%E6%B1%BD%E8%BD%A6&variant=zh-cn"
1个分类: 汽车
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Anonymous said...

[Singkir]
Wikipedia sumber rujukan — memerlukan sumbangan anda.
$3,253,778
Matlamat: $6,000,000
Menderma »
[Perlihat]
Bantulah Wikipedia: sebuah projek sukarelawan sedunia.
Menderma »
[Perlihat]
Bantulah Wikipedia: sebuah projek sukarelawan sedunia. — Menderma

Rapat Umum Wikipedia Bahasa Melayu sedang dalam perbincangan usulnya.
Malaysia
Dari Wikipedia Bahasa Melayu, ensiklopedia bebas.
Lompat ke: pandu arah, gelintar
Malaysia
مليسيا
Flag of Malaysia Lambang negara of Malaysia

Cogan kata: Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu
برسكوتو برتمبه موتو
Lagu: "Negaraku"
Lokasi Malaysia
Ibu negara Kuala Lumpur1
3°08′N 101°42′E / 3.133, 101.7
Bandar raya terbesar Kuala Lumpur
Bahasa rasmi Bahasa Melayu
Kerajaan Demokrasi berparlimen di bawah pentadbiran Raja berperlembagaan
- Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Ketua Negara) Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin
- Perdana Menteri (Ketua Kerajaan) Datuk Seri Abdullah Haji Ahmad Badawi
Kemerdekaan
- dari UK (Tanah Melayu sahaja) 31 Ogos 1957
- Persekutuan (bersama-sama Sabah, Sarawak dan Singapura2) 16 September 1963
- Air (%) 0.3
Penduduk
- Anggaran Feb 2008 27,730,000[1] (43rd)
- Banci 2000 23,953,136
KDNK (PPP) Anggaran 2006
- Jumlah $308.8 bilion (33)
- Per kapita $12,700 (59)
HDI (2006) 0.805 (tinggi) (61)
Mata wang Ringgit (RM) (MYR)
Zon waktu MST (UTC+8)
- Musim panas (DST) tidak diperhatikan (UTC+8)
Internet TLD .my
Kod panggilan +60
1 Putrajaya ialah pusat pentadbiran kerajaan pusat.
2 Singapura keluar daripada Malaysia pada 9 Ogos 1965.

Malaysia (Jawi: مليسيا) ialah sebuah negara persekutuan yang terletak di Asia Tenggara. Malaysia mempunyai dua kawasan utama yang terpisah oleh Laut China Selatan; iaitu Semenanjung Malaysia, bersempadankan Thailand di utara dan Singapura di selatan; dan Malaysia Timur, bahagian utara Pulau Borneo yang bersempadan dengan Indonesia di selatan dan Brunei di utara. Malaysia adalah salah satu negara perintis ASEAN.
Isi kandungan
[sorok]

* 1 Sejarah
* 2 Politik
* 3 Geografi
* 4 Ekonomi
* 5 Demografi
* 6 Budaya
* 7 Negeri dan Wilayah
o 7.1 Negeri
o 7.2 Wilayah Persekutuan
* 8 Tokoh utama di Malaysia
* 9 Organisasi
* 10 Fakta lain
* 11 Pencapaian Semasa
* 12 Lihat juga
* 13 Rujukan
* 14 Pautan luar

[sunting] Sejarah

Rencana utama: Sejarah Malaysia

Semenanjung Melayu berubah menjadi pusat perdagangan di Asia Tenggara apabila China dan India memulakan perdagangan mereka melalui Selat Melaka. Banyak kerajaan awal wujud pada abad ke-10 berasal daripada bandar pelabuhan. Ini termasuk Langkasuka dan Lembah Bujang di Kedah, Beruas dan Gangga Negara di Perak, serta Pan Pan di Kelantan. Pada awal abad ke-15, Kesultanan Melaka wujud dan kemakmuran ekonominya telah menarik minat penakluk daripada Portugis, Belanda dan Britain untuk mewujudkan petempatan atau koloni di Selat Melaka.

Petempatan selat koloni diraja Britain diwujudkan pada 1826, dan Britain sedikit demi sedikit menyebarkan pengaruh dan kawalannya ke atas seluruh semenanjung. Penempatan selat ini terdiri dari Pulau Pinang, Singapura dan Melaka. Pada 1867, Inggeris menjadi semakin agresif dan mula mendapatkan negeri-negeri Melayu yang lain. Disebabkan perang saudara, gangguan kongsi gelap Cina, Britain telah dipilih untuk menyelesaikan masalah masalah penduduk Negeri-negeri Selat. Akhirnya, Perjanjian Pangkor ditandatangani yang mengakibatkan perluasan kuasa Britain ke negeri-negeri Melayu (iaitu Perak, Pahang, Selangor dan Negeri Sembilan yang dikenali juga Negeri-negeri Melayu Bersekutu). Negeri-negeri lain yang dikenali sebagai Negeri-negeri Melayu Tidak Bersekutu iaitu Perlis, Kedah, Kelantan dan Terengganu berada di bawah kuasa Thailand.

Di Borneo pula, Borneo Utara Britain dahulunya berada di bawah pemerintahan Kesultanan Sulu (sekarang Sabah) ditabalkan sebagai Koloni Diraja British, manakala Sarawak menjadi milik keluarga Brooke. Akibat penaklukan Jepun pada Perang Dunia II dan kebangkitan komunis, sokongan untuk kemerdekaan semakin kuat. Apabila Britain mahu mewujudkan Malayan Union selepas perang berakhir, masyarakat Melayu bangun menentang dan mahukan sistem yang pro-Melayu, menolak kemasukan Singapura dan mahukan sistem kewarganegaraan tunggal (berbanding dwiwarganegara, yang membolehkan kaum pendatang mendapat status warganegara Malaya dan negara asal mereka). Kemerdekaan untuk Semenanjung Tanah Melayu diperolehi pada 1957 di bawah nama Persekutuan Malaya, tanpa penyertaan Singapura.

Persekutuan yang baru diwujudkan di bawah nama Malaysia pada 16 September 1963 melalui penyatuan Persekutuan Malaya, Singapura, Borneo Utara (kemudian dinamakan Sabah) dan Sarawak. Kesultanan Brunei yang pada mulanya menyatakan hasrat untuk menyertai Malaysia menarik diri akibat tentangan sebahagian masyarakat Brunei yang kecewa kerana sultan mereka tidak disenarai dalam bakal Yang Di-Pertuan Agong. Pada awal penubuhan Malaysia, banyak perkara berlaku misalnya cubaan Indonesia menakluk Malaysia, dan tuntutan Sabah oleh Filipina. Selain itu, pada 1965, Singapura menarik diri daripada Malaysia dan rusuhan kaum terjadi pada 1969.

Kini Malaysia masih lagi mempunyai beberapa masalah dengan jirannya seperti masalah penambakan tanah oleh Singapura dan isu harga air. Dengan Indonesia juga terdapat sedikit perselisihan mengenai pemberian konsesi carigali minyak di perairan Sabah serta masalah pekerja asing tanpa izin (PATI). Namun segala masalah tersebut dirundingkan secara aman dengan semangat setiakawan. Tambahan lagi, rakyat Malaysia dan jiran-jirannya berasal dari rumpun yang sama. Terutamanya dengan rakyat Indonesia, Malaysia telah banyak menjalin ikatan dengan rakyat di negara itu.

[sunting] Politik
Bangunan Parlimen Malaysia

Rencana utama: Politik di Malaysia

Persekutuan Malaysia merupakan sebuah negara raja berperlembagaan. Malaysia diketuai oleh Yang di-Pertuan Agong yang dipilih daripada sembilan sultan negeri Melayu untuk berkhidmat selama lima tahun.

Sistem ini adalah berdasarkan Westminster kerana Malaysia merupakan bekas tanah jajahan Britain. Kuasa pemerintahan lebih banyak dipegang oleh cabang eksekutif berbanding perundangan. Pilihan raya umum pula perlu diadakan setiap lima tahun sekali.

Kuasa eksekutif ditetapkan oleh kabinet yang dipimpin oleh Perdana Menteri. Berdasarkan perlembagaan Malaysia, Perdana Menteri mestilah seorang anggota Dewan Rakyat, yang pada pendapat Yang di-Pertuan Agong, memimpin kumpulan majoriti dalam parlimen. Manakala kabinet merupakan ahli parlimen yang dipilih daripada Dewan Rakyat atau Dewan Negara.

Parlimen terbahagi kepada Dewan Rakyat dan Dewan Negara. Dewan Negara mempunyai 70 orang senator (iaitu panggilan yang diberikan kepada ahli Dewan Negara). Pemilihan ahlinya boleh dibahagikan kepada dua:

1. 26 ahli dipilih oleh Dewan Undangan Negeri sebagai mewakili 13 negeri (setiap negeri diwakili oleh dua orang ahli).
2. 44 ahli yang dilantik oleh Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong atas nasihat Perdana Menteri, termasuk dua ahli dari Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, dan satu ahli masing-masing dari Wilayah Persekutuan Labuan dan Putrajaya.

Dewan Rakyat pula mempunyai seramai 222 ahli, dan setiap ahli mewakili satu kawasan pilihan raya. Ahli-ahli dipilih atas dasar sokongan ramai melalui pilihan raya. Setiap ahli Dewan Rakyat memegang jawatan selama lima tahun, dan selepas itu pilihan raya yang baru akan diadakan. Kuasa perundangan dibahagi antara kerajaan persekutuan dan kerajaan negeri.

Kuasa politik di Malaysia amat penting bagi memperjuangkan sesuatu isu dan hak oleh yang demikian kuasa memainkan peranan yang amat penting dalam melakukan perubahan.

* Laman Rasmi Parlimen Malaysia

[sunting] Geografi
Ladang Teh di Sungai Palas, Cameron Highlands

Rencana utama: Geografi Malaysia

Malaysia terdiri daripada dua kawasan utama yang dipisahkan oleh Laut China Selatan. Kedua dua kawasan mempunyai bentuk muka bumi yang hampir sama, iaitu daripada pinggir laut yang landai sehinggalah hutan tebal dan bukit bukau. Iklim Malaysia ialah khatulistiwa.

Putrajaya ialah pusat pemerintahan yang baru dibina dengan tujuan untuk mengelakkan kesesakan lalu lintas di Kuala Lumpur. Pejabat Perdana Menteri telah berpindah ke Putrajaya pada 1999 dan keseluruhan pejabat kerajaan pusat selesai berpindah ke Putrajaya pada 2005. Hanya beberapa pejabat kerajaan seperti RTM dikekalkan di Kuala Lumpur, selain Parlimen. Kuala Lumpur kekal sebagai ibu negara Malaysia. Bandar raya lain termasuk Ipoh, George Town, dan Johor Bahru.

[sunting] Ekonomi
Menara Berkembar KLCC, mercu tanda Malaysia

Rencana utama: Ekonomi Malaysia

Malaysia merupakan sebuah negara berpendapatan sederhana, berubah daripada sebuah negara pengeluar bahan mentah seperti getah, bijih timah dan sebagainya pada 1971 kepada negara berekonomi pelbagai sektor melalui Dasar Ekonomi Baru. Pada dasarnya, pertumbuhan Malaysia adalah bergantung kepada eksport bahan elektronik seperti cip komputer dan sebagainya. Akibatnya, Malaysia merasai tekanan hebat semasa kegawatan ekonomi pada 1998 dan kemerosotan dalam sektor teknologi maklumat pada tahun 2001. KDNK pada tahun 2001 hanya meningkat sebanyak 0.3% disebabkan pengurangan 11% dalam bilangan eksport tetapi pakej perangsang fiskal yang besar telah mengurangkan kesan gawat tersebut.

Malaysia mempunyai persekitaran makroekonomi yang stabil (di mana kadar inflasi dan kadar pengangguran kekal di bawah 3%), simpanan pertukaran wang asing yang sihat, dan hutang luar yang kecil. Ini membolehkan Malaysia untuk tidak lagi mengalami krisis yang sama seperti Krisis Kewangan Asia pada 1997. Walaubagaimanapun, prospek jangka panjang kelihatan agak kabur disebabkan kurangnya perubahan dalam sektor korporat terutama sekali sektor yang berurusan dengan hutang korporat yang tinggi dan kompetitif.

Selain getah dan sawit yang banyak di semenanjung, Sabah dan Sarawak juga kaya dengan sumber asli seperti kayu balak, petroleum dan gas asli.

[sunting] Demografi

Rencana utama: Demografi Malaysia

Malaysia terdiri daripada pelbagai bangsa dan agama, dengan kaum Melayu menjadi etnik terbesar di Malaysia dengan 54 % dari jumlah warganegara. Dari segi perlembagaan, orang Melayu ialah orang yang berkulit sawo matang, berbahasa Melayu dan beragama Islam. Kira kira satu perempat daripada penduduk Malaysia ialah kaum Cina, dan 7% lagi terdiri daripada kaum India. Hampir 85% daripada kaum India di Malaysia merupakan masyarakat Tamil.

Lebih separuh populasi Sarawak dan 66% populasi Sabah terdiri daripada kaum bumiputera bukan Melayu. Kemasukan kaum lain sedikit sebanyak mengurangkan peratusan penduduk peribumi di kedua-dua negeri itu. Keadaan di Sabah lebih teruk setelah kemasukan UMNO dalam usaha menguasai politik di negeri itu. Mereka terbahagi kepada puluhan kumpulan etnik tetapi memiliki budaya umum yang sama. Kaum yang utama adalah Kaum Kadazan-Dusun, Dayak dan Iban. Sehingga abad ke 20, kebanyakan daripada mereka mengamalkan kepercayaan tradisional tetapi kini telah ramai yang sudah bertukar kepada Kristian atau memeluk Islam.

Selain itu, Malaysia juga mempunyai penduduk yang berasal daripada Eropah (dipanggil Eurasia) dan Timur Tengah. Kepadatan penduduk Malaysia tidak seragam dengan 17 juta daripada 25 juta rakyat Malaysia menetap di Semenanjung Malaysia.

[sunting] Budaya
Kaum Melayu

Rencana utama: Budaya Malaysia

Budaya Malaysia merujuk kepada kebudayaan kesemua masyarakat majmuk yang terdapat di Malaysia:

1. Kebudayaan Melayu
2. Kebudayaan Cina
3. Kebudayaan India
4. Kebudayaan Kaum Kadazan-Dusun
5. Kebudayaan Indonesia
6. Kebudayaan Dayak, Iban, Kayan, Kenyah, Murut, Lun Bawang, Kelabit dan Bidayuh.

Juga merujuk kepada kaum Malaysia

[sunting] Negeri dan Wilayah

Malaysia terdiri daripada 13 buah negeri dan 1 Wilayah Persekutuan (terdiri daripada 3 daerah) yang dilambangkan sebagai empat belas jalur dan bucu bintang di Jalur Gemilang:


[sunting] Negeri

1. Johor Darul Takzim (Johor Bahru)
2. Kedah Darul Aman (Alor Star)
3. Kelantan Darul Naim (Kota Bharu)
4. Melaka Bandaraya Bersejarah (Bandar Melaka)
5. Negeri Sembilan Darul Khusus (Seremban)
6. Pahang Darul Makmur (Kuantan)
7. Perak Darul Ridzuan (Ipoh)
8. Perlis Indera Kayangan (Kangar)
9. Pulau Pinang Pulau Mutiara (Georgetown)
10. Sabah Negeri Di Bawah Bayu (Kota Kinabalu)
11. Sarawak Bumi Kenyalang (Kuching)
12. Selangor Darul Ehsan (Shah Alam)
13. Terengganu Darul Iman (Kuala Terengganu)

[sunting] Wilayah Persekutuan

1. Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur
2. Wilayah Persekutuan Labuan
3. Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya

[sunting] Tokoh utama di Malaysia
Tunku abdul Rahman

1. Dato' Onn bin Jaafar
2. Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Abdul Halim Hamid Shah
3. Tun Abdul Razak Hussein
4. Tun Hussein Onn
5. Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad
6. Dato' Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi

[sunting] Organisasi

* EAEC sebelumnya EAEG
* EAF
* ASEAN + 3
* ASEAN
* OIC
* Negara-negara Komanwel
* Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu
* Kerjasama Selatan - Selatan
* NAM

[sunting] Fakta lain
Bandar utama Kuala Lumpur
Pusat Pentadbiran Putrajaya
Hari Kebangsaan 31 Ogos 1957
Cogan Kata Negara Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu
Benua Asia, Asia Tenggara
Koordinat Geografi 2 30 U, 112 30 T
Hujan tahunan 2000mm ~ 2500mm
Iklim Tropika dengan suhu 24–35 Darjah Celsius
Bunga rasmi Bunga Raya
Binatang rasmi Harimau
Puncak tertinggi Gunung Kinabalu, Banjaran Crocker (4175m)
Puncak tertinggi Semenanjung Gunung Tahan, Banjaran Tahan (2187 m)
Banjaran terpanjang Banjaran Titiwangsa (500 km)
Sungai terpanjang Sungai Rajang, Sarawak (563 km)
Sungai terpanjang Semenanjung Sungai Pahang (475 km)
Jambatan terpanjang Jambatan Pulau Pinang (13.5 km)
Gua terbesar Gua Niah, Sarawak
Bangunan tertinggi Menara Berkembar Petronas (452m)
Negeri terbesar Sarawak (124,450 km persegi)
Negeri terkecil Perlis (810 km persegi)
Tempat paling lembap Bukit Larut (lebih 5080 mm)
Tempat paling kering Jelebu (kurang daripada 1500 mm)
Kawasan paling padat Kuala Lumpur (6074/km², 15,543/batu persegi)
Penanaman eksport utama minyak sawit dan getah

[sunting] Pencapaian Semasa

* Negara kedua paling berdaya saing harga di dunia dalam industri perjalanan dan pelancongan, daripada 124 buah negara yang dikaji.
* Tempat ke 6 bagi iltizam kerajaan dalam penyertaan di pameran T&T antarabangsa.
* Negara ke 24 paling selamat untuk dikunjungi.
* Tempat ke 10 dari segi kualiti pendidikan (daripada 100 negara)

(laporan World Economic Forum (WEF) yang berpengkalan di Geneva. dalam Berita Harian 10 Feb 2008)

[sunting] Lihat juga
Portal Malaysia
Wikimedia Commons mempunyai media mengenai:
Malaysia
Wikinews mempunyai berita berkaitan dengan:
Malaysia

* Identiti Malaysia
* Lambang negara Malaysia
* Parti-parti politik Malaysia
* Senarai Yang Di-Pertuan Agong Malaysia
* Jabatan dan Agensi kerajaan Malaysia
* Darjah-darjah kebesaran bintang-bintang dan pingat Malaysia
* Ringgit Malaysia
* Senarai Menteri, Timbalan Menteri dan Setiausaha Parlimen Malaysia (2004)
* Daftar persatuan di Malaysia
* Daftar kaum di Malaysia

[sunting] Rujukan

* ^ (Updated 5 September 2008). Department of Statistics Malaysia (5 September 2008). Dicapai pada 2008-09-20.
* ^ Article 1. Constitution of Malaysia.
* ^ a b c d e f g CIA. The World Fact Book. Malaysia. Retrieved December 9 2006.
* ^ Article 33. Constitution of Malaysia.
* ^ Article 43. Constitution of Malaysia.
* ^ The Federation of International Trade Associations. General Information of Malaysia. Retrieved December 7 2007.
* ^ a b Time Magazine. A New Nation. September 9 1957.
* ^ a b Paragraph 22. Singapore. Road to Independence. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Country Studies/Area Handbook Series. U.S. Department of the Army. Retrieved December 9 2006.
* ^ a b Time Magazine. The Art of Dispelling Anxiety. August.
* ^ Paragraph 25. Singapore. Road to Independence. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Country Studies/Area Handbook Series. U.S. Department of the Army. Retrieved December 9 2006.
* ^ a b Paweł Bożyk (2006). "Newly Industrialized Countries", Globalization and the Transformation of Foreign Economic Policy. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, 164. ISBN 0-75-464638-6.
* ^ a b N. Gregory Mankiw (4th Edition 2007). Principles of Economics. ISBN 0-32-422472-9.
* ^ The Prime Minister's Office. The Security of the Straits of Malacca and its implications to the Southeast Asia regional security. Retrieved November 26 2007.
* ^ American University. Tin Mining in Malaysia. Retrieved November 14 2007.
* ^ Malaysian Palm Oil Council. Malaysian Palm Oil. Retrieved November 14 2007.
* ^ Bank Negara. BNM National Summary Data Page. Retrieved November 8 2007
* ^ Article 3. Constitution of Malaysia.
* ^ a b Article 152. Constitution of Malaysia.
* ^ Overview. Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Retrieved November 8 2007.
* ^ List of Member States. United Nations. Retrieved November 8 2007
* ^ Members. Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved November 8 2007.
* ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Turkey. Facts and Figures of the D-8. Retrieved December 12 2007.
* ^ The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.
* ^ Sakai, Manako. Reviving Malay Connections in Southeast Asia.
* ^ Page 46-47. Suarez, Thomas. Early Mapping of Southeast Asia.
* ^ Earl, George S. W. (1850). "On The Leading Characteristics of the Papuan, Australian and Malay-Polynesian Nations". Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (JIAEA): p.119.
* ^ M.C. Ricklefs. pp. 19. A History of Modern Indonesia. Indiana University Press. 1981. ISBN
* ^ Mahathir bin Mohamad. Our Region, Ourselves. Time Asia. Retrieved May.
* ^ Time Magazine. Token Citizenship. May.
* ^ Time Magazine. Siege's End. May 2 1960.
* ^ Time Magazine. Fighting the Federation. December
* ^ Time Magazine. Race War in Malaysia. May. Retrieved December.
* ^ Republic of the Philippines. Department of Foreign Affairs. FAQs on the ICJ Decision. Retrieved December.
* ^ a b Jomo Kwame Sundaram. UNRISD The New Economic Policy and Interethnic Relations in Malaysia. Retrieved December.
* ^ Anthony Spaeth. Time Magazine. Bound for Glory. December 9 1996.
* ^ Anthony Spaeth. Time Magazine. He's the Boss. September.
* ^ Article 32. Constitution of Malaysia.
* ^ a b US Department of State. Malaysia. Retrieved December.
* ^ Article 44. Constitution of Malaysia.
* ^ Article 45. Constitution of Malaysia.
* ^ Article 46. Constitution of Malaysia.
* ^ Article 43 (1). Constitution of Malaysia
* ^ Article 14. Constitution of Malaysia
* ^ The Star Online. More than just a card. Retrieved November 26 2007.
* ^ Leow Chiah Wei. Travel Times. New Straits Times. Asia's southernmost tip. Retrieved December.
* ^ Sager Ahmad. Travel Times. New Straits Times. Tanjung Piai, the End of Asia. Retrieved December.
* ^ Andrew Marshall. Time Magazine. Waterway to the World. Retrieved December.
* ^ Petronas 1H profit up 7.7% to RM26.6b
* ^ All Sabahans must Fight BN and UMNO. Malaysia Today (August 15, 2006).
* ^ "Population and Housing Census" Press statement, Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Accessed April 3, 2007.
* ^ Article 160 (2). Constitution of Malaysia.
* ^ Inter Press Service: Temple Demolitions Spell Creeping Islamisation. Retrieved 4 June 2006.
* ^ BBC : Pressure on multi-faith Malaysia. Retrieved 4 June 2006.
* ^ Ninth Schedule. Constitution of Malaysia.
* ^ World Education Forum. UNESCO. Education for All 2000 Assessment Report. Malaysia. Retrieved December.
* ^ Health Tourism, Malaysian Government Portal. Accessed October 12, 2007.
* ^ Time Magazine. Rubber from Malaya. March 1 1943.
* ^ "Malaysia scraps ringgit peg", The Edge Daily, 2005-07-22.
* ^ Department of Statistics. Malaysia. Quarterly Balance of Payments Performance October - December, 2005. Retrieved December.
* ^ Financial Times. Malaysia relaxes short-selling ban. Extracted March 28, 2006.
* ^ Boulton, William; Michael Pecht, William Tucker, Sam Wennberg (May 1997). Malaysia. Electronics Manufacturing in the Pacific Rim, World Technology Evaluation Center. Retrieved on 26 September 2007

[sunting] Pautan luar

* Koleksi peta-peta Malaysia
* Portal maklumat kerajaan Malaysia


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1 Sebahagian terletak di Eropah. 2 Republik China (Taiwan) tidak diiktiraf oleh Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu. 3 Sebahagian terletak di Afrika. 4 Sebahagian terletak di Oceania.
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North Korea
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from North korea)
Jump to: navigation, search
Semi-protected
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
조선민주주의인민공화국
朝鮮民主主義人民共和國
Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk[1]
Flag of North Korea Coat of arms of North Korea
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: 강성대국
(Powerful and prosperous nation)
Anthem: Aegukka
Location of North Korea
Capital
(and largest city) Pyongyang
[show location on an interactive map] 39°2′N 125°45′E / 39.033, 125.75
Official languages Korean
Demonym North Korean, Korean
Government Juche Socialist Republic,
Single-party state
- Eternal President of the Republic Kim Il-sung
(deceased) a
- Chairman of the National Defence Commission Kim Jong-ilb
- President of the Supreme People's Assembly Kim Yong-namc
- Premier Kim Yong-il
Establishment
- Independence declared March 1, 1919
- Liberation August 15, 1945
- Formal declaration September 9, 1948
Area
- Total 120,540 km² (98th)
46,528 sq mi
- Water (%) 4.87
Population
- 2007 estimate 23,301,725[2] (48th)
- Density 190/km² (55th)
492/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007[3] estimate
- Total $40.00 billion (91st)
- Per capita $1,900 (147th)
Currency North Korean won (₩) (KPW)
Time zone Korea Standard Time (UTC+9)
Date formats yy, yyyy년 mm월 dd일
yy, yyyy/mm/dd (CE–1911, CE)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .kp
Calling code 850
a Died 1994, named "Eternal President" in 1998.
b Kim Jong-il is the nation's most prominent leading figure and government figure head, although he is neither the head of state nor the head of government; his official title is Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea, a position which he has held since 1994.
c Kim Yong-nam is the "head of state for foreign affairs".
Map of North Korea

North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK),[4] a state located in East Asia, in the northern half of the Korean Peninsula, with its capital and largest city being Pyongyang.

To the south, separated by the Korean Demilitarized Zone, lies South Korea, with which it formed the Korean Empire until its annexation by Japan and division following World War II. At its northern Amnok River border are China and, separated by the Tumen River in the extreme north-east, Russia.

North Korea is a one party state.[5][6][7][8][9][10] The country's government styles itself as following the Juche ideology of self reliance, developed by Kim Il-sung, the country's former leader. The current leader is Kim Jong-il, the late president Kim Il-sung's son. Relations are strongest with other officially socialist states: Vietnam, Laos, and especially China, as well as with Russia, Cambodia and Myanmar. Following a major famine in the early 1990s, due partly to the collapse of the Soviet Union (previously a major economic partner), leader Kim Jong-il instigated the "Military-First" policy in 1995, increasing economic concentration and support for the military.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Geography
* 2 History
* 3 Government and politics
o 3.1 Human rights
* 4 Foreign relations
* 5 Military
o 5.1 Nuclear weapons program
* 6 Economy
o 6.1 1990s famine
o 6.2 Foreign commerce
o 6.3 Tourism
* 7 Media
* 8 Transport
* 9 Demographics
o 9.1 Language
o 9.2 Religion
o 9.3 Education
o 9.4 Health care
* 10 Culture
* 11 Administrative divisions
o 11.1 Major cities
* 12 See also
* 13 Notes and references
* 14 Further reading
* 15 Pictorials
* 16 External links

[edit] Geography

Main article: Geography of North Korea
See also: Korean Peninsula

The Baekdu Mountain in Ryanggang.

North Korea occupies the northern portion of the Korean Peninsula, covering an area of 120,540 square kilometres (46,541 sq mi) (roughly the size of the American state Pennsylvania). North Korea shares land borders with China and Russia to the north, and borders South Korea along the Korean Demilitarized Zone. To its west are the Yellow Sea and Korea Bay, and to its east lies Japan across the Sea of Japan (East Sea of Korea). The highest point in North Korea is Paektu-san Mountain at 2,744 metres (9,003 ft). The longest river is the Amnok River which flows for 790 kilometres (491 mi).[11]

North Korea's climate is relatively temperate, with precipitation heavier in summer during a short rainy season called changma, and winters that can be bitterly cold.[12] For a week from August 7, 2007 the most devastating floods in 40 years caused the North Korean Government to ask for international help. NGOs, such as the Red Cross, asked people to raise funds because they feared a humanitarian catastrophe.[13]

The capital and largest city is Pyongyang; other major cities include Kaesong in the south, Sinuiju in the northwest, Wonsan and Hamhung in the east and Chongjin in the northeast.

[edit] History
For the history of North Korea, see Korea.

[edit] Government and politics

Main article: Politics of North Korea

The Tower of Juche Idea.

North Korea is a self-described Juche (self-reliance) state[14] with a pronounced cult of personality organized around Kim Il-sung (the founder of North Korea and the country's first and only president) and his son and heir, Kim Jong-il. Following Kim Il-sung's death in 1994, he was not replaced but instead received the designation of "Eternal President", and was entombed in the vast Kumsusan Memorial Palace in central Pyongyang.

Although the active position of president has been abolished in deference to the memory of Kim Il-sung,[15] the de facto head of state is Kim Jong-il, who is Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea. The legislature of North Korea is the Supreme People's Assembly, currently led by President Kim Yong-nam. The other senior government figure is Premier Kim Yong-il.

North Korea is a single-party state. The governing party is the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland, a coalition of the Workers' Party of Korea and two other smaller parties, the Korean Social Democratic Party and the Chondoist Chongu Party. These parties nominate all candidates for office and hold all seats in the Supreme People's Assembly.

[edit] Human rights

Main article: Human rights in North Korea

Multiple international human rights organizations, including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, accuse North Korea of having one of the worst human rights records of any nation.[16] North Koreans have been referred to as "some of the world's most brutalized people", due to the severe restrictions placed on their political and economic freedoms.[17] North Korean defectors have testified to the existence of prison and detention camps with an estimated 150,000 to 200,000 inmates (about 0.85% of the population), and have reported torture, starvation, rape, murder, medical experimentation, forced labour, and forced abortions.[18]

The system changed slightly at the end of 1990s, when population growth became very low. In many cases, where capital punishment was de facto, it was replaced by less severe punishments. Bribery became prevalent throughout the country. For example, years ago just listening to South Korean radio could result in capital punishment. However, many North Koreans now illegally wear clothes of South Korean origin, listen to Southern music, watch South Korean videotapes and even receive Southern broadcasts.[19][20]

[edit] Foreign relations

Main article: Foreign relations of North Korea
See also: North Korea-United States relations

The Arch of Reunification in Pyongyang.

Since the ceasefire of the Korean War in 1953, the relations between the North Korean government and South Korea, European Union, Canada, the United States, and Japan have remained tense. Fighting was halted in the ceasefire, but both Koreas are still technically at war. Both North and South Korea signed the June 15th North-South Joint Declaration in 2000, in which both sides made promises to seek out a peaceful reunification.[21] Additionally, on October 4, 2007, the leaders of North and South Korea pledged to hold summit talks to officially declare the war over and reaffirmed the principle of mutual non-aggression.[22]

In 2002, U.S. President George W. Bush labelled North Korea part of an "axis of evil" and an "outpost of tyranny". The highest-level contact the government has had with the United States was with U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, who made a visit to Pyongyang in 2000,[23] but the two countries do not have formal diplomatic relations.[2] By 2006, approximately 37,000 American soldiers remained in South Korea, with plans to reduce the number to 25,000 by 2008.[24] Kim Jong-il has privately stated his acceptance of U.S. troops on the peninsula, even after a possible reunification.[25] Publicly, North Korea strongly demands the removal of American troops from Korea (see North Korea-United States relations).[25]

North Korea has long maintained close relations with the People's Republic of China and Russia. The fall of communism in eastern Europe in 1989, and the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991, resulted in a devastating drop in aid to North Korea from Russia, although China continues to provide substantial assistance. North Korea continues to have strong ties with its socialist southeast Asian allies in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.[26] North Korea has started installing a concrete and barbed wire fence on its northern border, in response to China's wishing to curb refugees fleeing from North Korea. Previously the shared border with China and North Korea had only been lightly patrolled.[27]

As a result of the North Korean nuclear weapons program, the Six-party talks were established to find a peaceful solution to the growing unrest between the two Korean governments, the Russian Federation, the People's Republic of China, Japan, and the United States.

On July 17, 2007, United Nations inspectors verified the shutdown of five North Korean nuclear facilities, according to the February 2007 agreement.[28]

On October 4, 2007, South Korean President Roh Moo-Hyun and North Korean leader Kim Jong-Il signed an 8-point peace agreement, on issues of permanent peace, high-level talks, economic cooperation, renewal of train, highway and air travel, and a joint Olympic cheering squad.[22]

The United States and South Korea had designated the North as a state sponsor of terrorism.[29] The 1983 bombing that killed members of the South Korean government and the 1987 destruction of a South Korean airliner have been attributed to North Korea.[30] The DPRK has also claimed responsibility for the kidnap of 13 Japanese citizens in the 1970s and 1980s: five of whom were returned to Japan in 2002.[31] On October 11, 2008, the United States removed North Korea from its list of states that sponsor terrorism.[32]

[edit] Military

Main article: Korean People's Army

Kim Jong-il is the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army and Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea. The Korean People's Army (KPA) is the name for the collective armed personnel of the North Korean military. The army has four branches: Ground Force, Naval Force, Air Force, and the Civil Securities Force.

According to the U.S. Department of State, North Korea has the fourth-largest military in the world, at an estimated 1.21 million armed personnel, with about 20% of men aged 17-54 in the regular armed forces.[33] North Korea has the highest percentage of military personnel per capita of any nation in the world, with approximately 40 enlisted soldiers per 1,000 citizens.[34] Military strategy is designed for insertion of agents and sabotage behind enemy lines in wartime,[33] with much of the KPA's forces deployed along the heavily fortified Korean Demilitarized Zone.

[edit] Nuclear weapons program

Main article: North Korea and weapons of mass destruction

On October 9, 2006, North Korea conducted its first nuclear test.[35] The blast was smaller than expected and U.S. officials suggested that it may have been an unsuccessful test or a partially successful fizzle.[36] North Korea has previously stated that it has produced nuclear weapons and according to U.S. intelligence and military officials it has produced, or has the capability to produce, up to six or seven such devices.[37]

On March 17, 2007, North Korea told delegates at international nuclear talks it would begin shut down preparations for its main nuclear facility. This was later confirmed on July 14, 2007 as International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors observed the initial shut-down phases of the currently operating 5 MW Yongbyon nuclear reactor, despite there being no official time line declared. In return, the reclusive nation has received 50,000 tons of heavy fuel oil shipped from South Korea. Once the old small nuclear reactor is permanently shut down, North Korea will receive the equivalent of 950,000 tons of fuel oil when the six-nation talks reconvene. Following breakthrough talks held in September 2007, aimed at hastening the end of North Korea's nuclear program, North Korea was to "disable some part of its nuclear facilities" by the end of 2007, according to the US Assistant Secretary of State.

The details of such an agreement are due to be worked out in a session held in the People's Republic of China which will involve South Korea, China, Russia and Japan. Terms for the agreement have thus far not been disclosed, nor has it been disclosed what offer was made on the United States's part in exchange. North Korea, however, has already been removed from the US list of state sponsors of terrorism.

On June 27, 2008, North Korea destroyed a water cooling tower at its nuclear facility in Yongbyon.[38] It has been reported that without the cooling tower, North Korea cannot create plutonium,[38] though The New York Times reported that "the tower is a technically insignificant structure, [and is] relatively easy to rebuild."[39] The implosion is being hailed as a symbolic way of showing that North Korea is committed to ending its nuclear program.[40]

[edit] Economy

Main article: Economy of North Korea
See also: Tourism in North Korea

An image of the Korean Peninsula at night rendered from DMSP observations. The largest northern group of lights, Pyongyang is dwarfed by the massive southern group showing the Seoul metropolitan area, illustrating large differences in outdoor illumination between North Korea and its neighbours.
A Pyongyang Tram car.

While North Korea is more developed than most African and South Asian nations with a medium Human Development Index of 0.766 in 1995 and a GDP per capita standing at about $2,000, its strong isolation policy means that international trade is highly restricted, hampering a significant potential for future economic growth. North Korea's large economic potential can be seen when compared with its neighbour, South Korea, who has adopted a capitalist economy and is now a major economic power and a highly developed country in the world. In the aftermath of the Korean War and throughout the 1960s and early 1970s, the country's state-controlled economy grew at a significant rate before collapsing. State-owned industry produces nearly all manufactured goods. The government focuses on heavy military industry, following Kim Jong-il's adoption of the Songun "Military-First" policy.

Estimates of the North Korean economy cover a broad range, as the country does not release official figures and the secretive nature of the country makes outside estimation difficult.

According to accepted estimates, North Korea spends $5 billion out of a gross domestic product (GDP) of $20.9 billion on the military, compared with South Korea's $24 billion out of a GDP of $1.196 trillion. Part of the reason for this is that the military serves a number of roles in addition to national defense. The military assists farmers with crops, local areas with building of infrastructure, and, as is similar to the National Guard in the United States, assisting during natural disasters.[41][42]

[edit] 1990s famine

Main article: North Korean famine

View of Pyongyang, the country's capital.

In the 1990s North Korea faced significant economic disruptions, including a series of natural disasters, economic mismanagement, serious fertilizer shortages, and the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. These resulted in a shortfall of staple grain output of more than 1 million tons from what the country needs to meet internationally-accepted minimum dietary requirements.[43] The North Korean famine known as "Arduous March" resulted in the deaths of between 300,000 and 800,000 North Koreans per year during the three year famine, peaking in 1997, with 2.0 million total being "the highest possible estimate."[44] The deaths were most likely caused by famine-related illnesses such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, and diarrhea rather than starvation.[44]

In 2006, Amnesty International reported that a national nutrition survey conducted by the North Korean government, the World Food Programme, and UNICEF found that 7 percent of children were severely malnourished; 37 percent were chronically malnourished; 23.4 percent were underweight; and one in three mothers was malnourished and anaemic as the result of the lingering effect of the famine. The inflation caused by some of the 2002 economic reforms, including the Songun or "Military-first" policy, was cited for creating the increased price of basic foods.[45]

The history of Japanese assistance to North Korea has been marked with unrest; from a large pro-Pyongyang community of North Koreans in Japan to public outrage over the 1998 North Korean missile launch and revelations regarding the abduction of Japanese citizens.[46] In June 1995 an agreement was reached that the two countries would act jointly (Snyder1999).[47] South Korea would provide 150,000 MT of grain in unmarked bags, and Japan would provide 150,000 MT gratis and another 150,000 MT on concessional terms.[48] In October 1995 and January 1996, North Korea again approached Japan for assistance. On these two occasions, both of which came at crucial moments in the evolution of the famine, opposition from both South Korea and domestic political sources quashed the deals.[48] Beginning in 1997, the U.S. began shipping food aid to North Korea through the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) to combat the famine. Shipments peaked in 1999 at nearly 700,000 tons making the U.S. the largest foreign aid donor to the country at the time. Under the Bush Administration, aid was drastically reduced year after year from 350,000 tons in 2001 to 40,000 in 2004.[49] The Bush Administration took criticism for using "food as a weapon" during talks over the North's nuclear weapons program, but insisted the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) criteria were the same for all countries and the situation in North Korea had "improved significantly since its collapse in the mid-1990s." Agricultural production had increased from about 2.7 million metric tons in 1997 to 4.2 million metric tons in 2004.[50]

[edit] Foreign commerce
The Kaesong Industrial Region is North Korea's light industry center.

China and South Korea remain the largest donors of unconditional food aid to North Korea. The U.S. objects to this manner of donating food due to lack of oversight.[50] In 2005, China and South Korea combined to provide 1 million tons of food aid, each contributing half.[51] In addition to food aid, China reportedly provides an estimated 80 to 90 percent of North Korea's oil imports at "friendly prices" that are sharply lower than the world market price.[52]

On September 19, 2005, North Korea was promised fuel aid and various other non-food incentives from South Korea, the U.S., Japan, Russia, and China in exchange for abandoning its nuclear weapons program and rejoining the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Providing food in exchange for abandoning weapons programs has historically been avoided by the U.S. so as not to be perceived as "using food as a weapon".[53] Humanitarian aid from North Korea's neighbors has been cut off at times to provoke North Korea to resume boycotted talks, such as South Korea's "postponed consideration" of 500,000 tons of rice for the North in 2006 but the idea of providing food as a clear incentive (as opposed to resuming "general humanitarian aid") has been avoided.[54] There have also been aid disruptions due to widespread theft of railroad cars used by mainland China to deliver food relief.[55]
Pyongyang Metro.

In July 2002, North Korea started experimenting with capitalism in the Kaesong Industrial Region.[56] A small number of other areas have been designated as Special Administrative Regions, including Sinŭiju along the China-North Korea border. China and South Korea are the biggest trade partners of North Korea, with trade with China increasing 15% to US$1.6 billion in 2005, and trade with South Korea increasing 50% to over 1 billion for the first time in 2005.[53] It is reported that the number of mobile phones in Pyongyang rose from only 3,000 in 2002 to approximately 20,000 during 2004.[57] As of June 2004, however, mobile phones became forbidden again.[58] A small number of capitalistic elements are gradually spreading from the trial area, including a number of advertising billboards along certain highways. Recent visitors have reported that the number of open-air farmers' markets has increased in Kaesong and Pyongyang, as well as along the China-North Korea border, bypassing the food rationing system.

In an event in 2003 dubbed the "Pong Su incident", a North Korean cargo ship allegedly attempting to smuggle heroin into Australia was seized by Australian officials, strengthening Australian and United States' suspicions that Pyongyang engages in international drug smuggling. The North Korean government denied any involvement.[59]

[edit] Tourism
The Kŭmgangsan Tourist Region is popular among South Korean citizens.
The Ryugyong Hotel.

Tourism in North Korea is organized by the state owned Tourism Organisation ("Ryohaengsa"). Every group of travelers as well as individual tourist/visitors are permanently accompanied by one or two "guides" who normally speak the mother tongue of the tourist. While tourism has increased over the last few years, tourists from Western countries remain few. The majority of the tourists that do go come from China and Japan. For citizens of the US and South Korea it is practically impossible to obtain a visa for North Korea. Exceptions for US citizens are made for the yearly Arirang Festival.

In the area of the Kŭmgangsan-mountains, the company Hyundai established and operates a special Tourist area. Traveling to this area is also possible for South Koreans and US citizens, but only in organized groups from South Korea. A special administrative region known as the Kŭmgangsan Tourist Region exists for this purpose.

[edit] Media

Main article: Media of North Korea

The media of North Korea is one of the most strictly controlled in the world. As a result, information is tightly controlled both into and out of North Korea. The constitution provides for freedom of speech and the press; however, the government prohibits the exercise of these rights in practice. In its 2008 report, Reporters Without Borders classified the media environment in North Korea as 172 out of 173, only above that of Eritrea. [60] The press is tightly controlled.

News that favours the regime is only permitted, whilst news that covers the ecomonic and political problems in the country, or criticisms of the regime from abroad is not allowed.[61] The media upholds the personality cult of Kim Jong-il, regularly reporting on his daily activites.

[edit] Transport

Main articles: Communications in North Korea, Transportation in North Korea, and Tourism in North Korea

[edit] Demographics

Main article: Demographics of North Korea

North Korea's population of roughly 23 million is one of the most ethnically and linguistically homogeneous in the world, with very small numbers of Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, South Korean and European expatriate minorities.

[edit] Language

North Korea shares the Korean language with South Korea. There are dialect differences within both Koreas, but the border between North and South does not represent a major linguistic boundary. While prevalent in the South, the adoption of modern terms from foreign languages has been limited in North Korea. Hanja (Chinese characters) are no longer used in North Korea, although still occasionally used in South Korea. Both Koreas share the phonetic writing system called Chosongul in North Korea and Hangul South of the DMZ. The official Romanization differs in the two countries, with North Korea using a slightly modified McCune-Reischauer system, and the South using the Revised Romanization of Korean.

[edit] Religion
Religion in North Korea
religion percent
Atheist

71.2%
Cheondoism

12.9%
Korean shamanism

12.3%
Christianity

2.1%
Buddhism

1.5%

Main article: Religion in North Korea

Both Koreas share a Buddhist and Confucian heritage and a recent history of Christian and Cheondoism ("religion of the Heavenly Way") movements. The North Korean constitution states that freedom of religion is permitted.[62] According to Human Rights Watch, free religious activities no longer exist in the DPRK as the government sponsors religious groups only to create an illusion of religious freedom.[63]

Pyongyang was the centre of Christian activity in Korea before the Korean War. Today, four state-sanctioned churches exist, which freedom of religion advocates say are showcases for foreigners.[64][65] Official government statistics report that there are 10,000 Protestants and 4,000 Roman Catholics in North Korea.[66]

According to a ranking published by Open Doors, an organization that supports persecuted Christians, North Korea is currently the country with the most severe persecution of Christians in the world.[67] Human rights groups such as Amnesty International also have expressed concerns about religious persecution in North Korea.[68]

According to government's statistics, as of 2000, Cheondoism is the largest organized religion in North Korea, which adherents constitute about 12.9% of the total population.[69] Cheondoists are followed by Christians (2.1%) and Buddhists (1.5%).[69] Korean shamanism, an unorganized system of beliefs, is followed by 12.3% of the North Koreans.[69]

[edit] Education

Main article: Education in North Korea

Schoolgirls in a school in Pyongyang.

Education in North Korea is controlled by the government and is compulsory until the secondary level. Compulsory education lasts eleven years, and encompasses one year of preschool, four years of primary education and six years of secondary education. The North Korean School curricula consists of both academic and political subject matter.

Primary schools are known as people's schools and children attend this school from the age of six to nine. They are later enrolled in either a regular secondary school or a special secondary school, depending on their specialities. They enter secondary school at the age of ten and leave when they are sixteen.

Higher education is not compulsory in North Korea. It is comprised of two systems: academic higher education and higher education for continuing education. The academic higher education system includes three kinds of institutions: universities, professional schools, and technical schools. Graduate schools for master and doctoral level studies are attached to universities, and are for students who want to continue their education. There are several universities in North Korea, of which the most famous one is the Kim Il-sung University.

North Korea is one of the most literate countries in the world, with a literacy rate of 99% for adults.[2]

[edit] Health care

Main article: Health in North Korea

Health care and medical treatment is free in North Korea. North Korea spends 3% of its gross domestic product on health care. Its healthcare system has been in a steep decline since the 1990s due to natural disasters, economic problems, and food and energy shortages. Many hospitals and clinics in North Korea lack essential medicines and equipment, running water and electricity. [70]

Almost 100% of the population has access to water and sanitation, but it is not completely potable. Infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria, and hepatitis B are considered to be endemic to the country.[71]

In 2008, North Korea had the 117th highest life expectancy of any country in the world, with an average life expectancy of 71.92 years at birth. North Korea also has a death rate of 9.9 deaths per 1000 people, which is equivalent to that of Greece and the United Kingdom.

[edit] Culture
Scene from the Mass Games.
Kimchaek University e-Library in Pyongyang.

Main articles: Culture of Korea and Contemporary culture of North Korea

There is a vast cult of personality around Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il and much of North Korea's literature, popular music, theater, and film glorify the two men.

A popular event in North Korea is the Mass Games. The most recent and largest Mass Games was called "Arirang". It was performed six nights a week for two months, and involved over 100,000 performers. Attendees to this event report that the anti-West sentiments have been toned down compared to previous performances. The Mass Games involve performances of dance, gymnastic, and choreographic routines which celebrate the history of North Korea and the Workers' Party Revolution. The Mass Games are held in Pyongyang at various venues (varying according to the scale of the Games in a particular year) including the May Day Stadium.

Culture is officially protected by the North Korean government. Large buildings committed to culture have been built, such as the People's Palace of Culture or the Grand People's Palace of Studies, both in Pyongyang. Outside the capital, there's a major theatre in Hamhung and in every city there are State-run theatres and stadiums.

Korean culture came under attack during the Japanese rule from 1910-1945. Japan enforced a cultural assimilation policy. Koreans were forced to learn and speak Japanese, adopt the Japanese family name system and Shinto religion, and forbidden to write or speak the Korean language in schools, businesses, or public places.[72] In addition, the Japanese altered or destroyed various Korean monuments including Gyeongbok Palace and documents which portrayed the Japanese in a negative light were revised.

In July 2004, the Complex of Goguryeo Tombs became the first site in the country to be included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.

In February 2008, The New York Philharmonic Orchestra became the first US musical group ever to perform in North Korea.[73]

[edit] Administrative divisions

Main articles: Administrative divisions of North Korea and Cities of North Korea
See also: Provinces of Korea and Special cities of Korea

Principal divisions of North Korea.
Namea hangul hanja
Directly-governed cities (T'ŭkbyŏlsi)a
1 Pyongyang (National Capital) 평양 직할시 平壤直轄市
2 Rason 라선 직할시 羅先直轄市
Special Administrative Regions (T'ŭkbyŏl Haengjeonggu)a
3 Kaesŏng Industrial Region 개성 공업 지구 開城工業地區
4 Kumgangsan Tourist Region 금강산 관광 지구 金剛山觀光地區
5 Sinuiju Special Administrative Region 신의주 특별 행정구 新義州特別行政區
Provinces
6 Chagang 자강도 慈江道
7 Pyongbuk 평안 북도 平安北道
8 Pyongnam 평안 남도 平安南道
9 Hwangnam 황해 남도 咸鏡南道
10 Hwangbuk 황해 북도 咸鏡北道
11 Kangwon 강원도 江原道
12 Hamnam 함경 남도 咸鏡南道
13 Hambuk 함경 북도 咸鏡北道
14 Ryanggang * 량강도 兩江道
* - Sometimes rendered "Yanggang".

[edit] Major cities

* Pyongyang
* Sinuiju
* Kaesong
* Nampho
* Chongjin
* Wonsan
* Sariwon



* Hoeryong
* Hamhung
* Haeju
* Kanggye
* Hyesan
* Kimchaek
* Kangso







[edit] See also

* List of Korea-related topics
* Korean War

[edit] Notes and references

1. ^ "Administrative Divisions and Population Figures (#26)" (PDF). DPRK: The Land of the Morning Calm. Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use (2003-04). Retrieved on 2006-10-10.
2. ^ a b c "Korea, North". CIA World Factbook (2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-01. North Korea itself does not disclose figures.
3. ^ "Country Profile: North Korea". Foreign and Commonwealth Office, UK (2007-07-20). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
4. ^ Another acronym occasionally used in the media is DPRNK, as for Democratic People's Republic of North Korea.
5. ^ Spencer, Richard (2007-08-28). "North Korea power struggle looms". The Telegraph (online version of UK national newspaper). Retrieved on 2007-10-31. "A power struggle to succeed Kim Jong-il as leader of North Korea's Stalinist dictatorship may be looming after his eldest son was reported to have returned from semi-voluntary exile."
6. ^ Brooke, James (2003-10-02). "North Korea Says It Is Using Plutonium to Make A-Bombs". The New York Times (online version of New York, United States newspaper). Retrieved on 2007-10-31. "North Korea, run by a Stalinist dictatorship for almost six decades, is largely closed to foreign reporters and it is impossible to independently check today's claims."
7. ^ Parry, Richard Lloyd (2007-09-05). "North Korea's nuclear 'deal' leaves Japan feeling nervous". The Times (online version of UK's national newspaper of record). Retrieved on 2007-10-31. "The US Government contradicted earlier North Korean claims that it had agreed to remove the Stalinist dictatorship’s designation as a terrorist state and to lift economic sanctions, as part of talks aimed at disarming Pyongyang of its nuclear weapons."
8. ^ Walsh, Lynn (2003-02-08). "The Korean crisis". CWI online: Socialism Today, February 2003 edition, journal of the Socialist Party, CWI England and Wales. socialistworld.net, website of the committee for a worker’s international. Retrieved on 2007-10-31. "Kim Jong-il's regime needs economic concessions to avoid collapse, and just as crucially needs an end to the strategic siege imposed by the US since the end of the Korean war (1950-53). Pyongyang's nuclear brinkmanship, though potentially dangerous, is driven by fear rather than by militaristic ambition. The rotten Stalinist dictatorship faces the prospect of an implosion. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, which deprived North Korea of vital economic support, the regime has consistently attempted to secure from the US a non-aggression pact, recognition of its sovereignty, and economic assistance. The US's equally consistent refusal to enter into direct negotiations with North Korea, effectively ruling out a peace treaty to formally close the 1950-53 Korean war, has encouraged the regime to resort to nuclear blackmail."
9. ^ Oakley, Corey (October 2006). "US is threat to peace not North Korea". Edition 109 - October-November 2006. Socialist Alternative website in Australia. Retrieved on 2007-10-31. "In this context, the constant attempts by the Western press to paint Kim Jong Il as simply a raving lunatic look, well, mad. There is no denying that the regime he presides over is a nasty Stalinist dictatorship that brutally oppresses its own population. But in the face of constant threats from the US, Pyongyang's actions have a definite rationality from the regime's point of view."
10. ^ Baruma, Ian. "Leader Article: Let The Music Play On". The Times of India. Retrieved on 2008-03-27. "North Korea, officially known as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is one of the world's most oppressive, closed, and vicious dictatorships. It is perhaps the last living example of pure totalitarianism - control of the state over every aspect of human life. Is such a place the right venue for a western orchestra? Can one imagine the New York Philharmonic, which performed to great acclaim in Pyongyang, entertaining Stalin or Hitler?"
11. ^ Caraway, Bill (2007). "Korea Geography". The Korean History Project. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
12. ^ Federal Research Division of the US Library of Congress (2007). "North Korea - Climate". Country Studies. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
13. ^ "Emergency appeal for DPRK flood survivors", website of the Red Cross
14. ^ "18. Is North Korea a 'Stalinist' state?". DPRK FAQ; Document approved by Zo Sun Il. Official Webpages of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (2005-05-05). Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
15. ^ 10th Supreme People's Assembly. (1998-09-15). "DPRK's Socialist Constitution (Full Text)". The People's Korea. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
16. ^ Amnesty International (2007). "Our Issues, North Korea". Human Rights Concerns. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
17. ^ Seok, Kay (2007-05-15). "Grotesque indifference". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
18. ^ Hawk, David (2003). "The Hidden Gulag: Exposing North Korea’s Prison Camps - Prisoners' Testimonies and Satellite Photographs". U.S. Committee for Human Rights in North Korea. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
19. ^ "South Korean Dramas Are All the Rage among North Korean People", The Daily NK (2007-11-02).
20. ^ "North Korean People Copy South Korean TV Drama for Trade", The Daily NK (2008-02-22).
21. ^ "North-South Joint Declaration". Naenara (2000-06-15). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
22. ^ a b Reuters. "Factbox - North, South Korea pledge peace, prosperity". Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
23. ^ Bury, Chris (November 2000). "Interview - Madeleine Albright". Nightline Frontline, on PBS.org. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
24. ^ Xinhua (2005-01-13). "S. Korea to cut 40,000 troops by 2008". People's Daily Online. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
25. ^ a b Oberdorfer, Don (2005-07-28). "North Korea: Six-Party Talks Continue". The Washington Post Online. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
26. ^ "Kim Yong Nam Visits 3 ASEAN Nations To Strengthen Traditional Ties". The People's Korea (2001). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
27. ^ Report: N. Korea building fence to keep people in
28. ^ CNN. "U.N. verifies closure of North Korean nuclear facilities". Retrieved on 2007-07-18.
29. ^ Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism. "Country Reports on Terrorism: Chapter 3 -- State Sponsors of Terrorism Overview". Retrieved on 2008-06-26.
30. ^ Washington Post. "Country Guide". Retrieved on 2008-06-26.
31. ^ BBC. ""N Korea to face Japan sanctions"". Retrieved on 2008-06-26.
32. ^ "U.S. takes North Korea off terror list", CNN (2008-10-11). Retrieved on 11 October 2008.
33. ^ a b Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs (April 2007). "Background Note: North Korea". United States Department of State. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
34. ^ "Army personnel (per capita) by country". NationMaster (2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
35. ^ "US confirms nuclear claim". New York Times (2006-10-15). Retrieved on 2006-10-16.
36. ^ "US says Test points to N. Korea nuclear blast". Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
37. ^ "Post-election push on N Korea". BBC News (2005-11-06). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
38. ^ a b "N. Korea destroys nuclear reactor tower", CNN (2008-06-27). Retrieved on 27 June 2008.
39. ^ Choe, Sang-Hun (2008-06-27). "North Korea Destroys Tower at Nuclear Site", New York Times. Retrieved on 27 June 2008.
40. ^ Koo, Heejin; Viola Gienger (2008-06-27). "North Korea Blasts Cooling Tower at Yongbyon Nuclear Plant", Bloomberg. Retrieved on 27 June 2008.
41. ^ "Research Library: Korea, South". ICONS Project (2007-05-29). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
42. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Korea, South
43. ^ Federal Research Division of the US Library of Congress (2007). "North Korea - Agriculture". Country Studies. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
44. ^ a b Lee, May (1998-08-19). "Famine may have killed 2 million in North Korea". CNN. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
45. ^ "Asia-Pacific : North Korea". Amnesty International (2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
46. ^ Stephan Haggard and Marcus Noland,'Ch6 The political economy of aid' Famine in North Korea, Columbia University Press, New York, 2007, Pg 137
47. ^ Stephan Haggard and Marcus Noland,'Ch6 The political economy of aid' Famine in North Korea, Columbia University Press, New York, 2007, Pg 137
48. ^ a b Stephan Haggard and Marcus Noland,'Ch6 The political economy of aid' Famine in North Korea, Columbia University Press, New York, 2007, Pg 137
49. ^ Solomon, Jay (2005-05-20). "US Has Put Food Aid for North Korea on Hold". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
50. ^ a b "Report on U.S. Humanitarian assistance to North Koreans" (PDF). United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs (2006-04-15). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
51. ^ "North Korea: Ending Food Aid Would Deepen Hunger". Human Rights Watch (2006-10-11). Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
52. ^ Nam, Sung-wook (2006-10-26). "China's N.K. policy unlikely to change". The Korea Herald. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
53. ^ a b "Fourth round of Six-Party Talks". CanKor, on Korean Peace and Security (2005-09-27). Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
54. ^ Faiola, Anthony (2006-07-14). "S. Korea Suspends Food Aid to North". Washington Post. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
55. ^ "China halts rail freight to North Korea". Financial Times (2007-10-18). Retrieved on 2007-10-18.
56. ^ French, Howard W. (2002-09-25). "North Korea to Let Capitalism Loose in Investment Zone". The New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
57. ^ MacKinnon, Rebecca (2005-01-17). "Chinese Cell Phone Breaches North Korean Hermit Kingdom". Yale Global Online. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
58. ^ "North Korea recalls mobile phones". The Sydney Morning Herald (2004-06-04). Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
59. ^ "N Korean heroin ship sunk by jet". BBC News (2006-03-23). Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
60. ^ Annual Press Freedom Index, accessed November 30, 2008.
61. ^ "Meagre media for North Korea", BBC, October 10, 2006.
62. ^ "Chapter 5, Article 68 of the DPRK constitution".
63. ^ "Human Rights in North Korea". Human Rights Watch (July 2004). Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
64. ^ United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (2004-09-21). "Annual Report of the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom". Nautilus Institute. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
65. ^ "N Korea stages Mass for Pope". BBC News (2005-04-10). Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
66. ^ "North Korean Religion". Windows on Asia. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
67. ^ Open Doors International : WWL: Focus on the Top Ten
68. ^ "Korea Report 2002". Amnesty International (2001). Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
69. ^ a b c "Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea)". worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved on 2008-09-10.
70. ^ "N Korea healthcare 'near collapse'", BBC News (2008-11-18).
71. ^ "Life Inside North Korea". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved on 2008-11-18.
72. ^ Cumings, Bruce G.. "The Rise of Korean Nationalism and Communism". A Country Study: North Korea, Library of Congress. Call number DS932 .N662 1994, http://memory.loc.gov/frd/cs/kptoc.html.
73. ^ CNN. "Americans in Pyongyang Perform". Retrieved on 2008-02-26.

[edit] Further reading

* Ben Anderson, Interview on visit to North Korea, Frontline World, January 2003.
* Jasper Becker Rogue Regime: Kim Jong Il and the Looming Threat of North Korea Oxford University Press (2005) , hardcover, 328 pages, ISBN 13: 9780195170443
* Gordon Cucullu, Separated At Birth: How North Korea Became The Evil Twin Globe Pequot Press (2004) , hardcover, 307 pages, ISBN 1-59228-591-0
* Bruce Cumings, Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History, W.W. Norton & Company, 1998, paperback, 527 pages, ISBN 0-393-31681-5
* Bruce Cumings, Origins of the Korean War (Vol. 1) : Liberation and the Emergence of Separate Regimes 1945-1947, Princeton University Press, 1981, paperback, ISBN 0-691-10113-2
* Bruce Cumings, Origins of the Korean War (Vol. 2) : The Roaring of the Cataract 1947-1950, Cornell University Press, 2004, hardcover, ISBN 89-7696-613-9
* Bruce Cumings, North Korea: Another Country, New Press, 2004, paperback, ISBN 1-56584-940-X
* Bruce Cumings, Living Through The Forgotten War: Portrait Of Korea, Mansfield Freeman Center for East Asian Studies, 2004, paperback, ISBN 0-9729704-0-1
* Bruce Cumings, Inventing the Axis of Evil: The Truth About North Korea, Iran, and Syria, New Press, 2006, paperback, ISBN 1-59558-038-7
* Delisle, Guy, Pyongyang: A Journey in North Korea, Drawn & Quarterly Books, 2005, hardcover, 176 pages, ISBN 1-896597-89-0
* Nick Eberstadt, aka Nicholas Eberstadt, The End of North Korea, American Enterprise Institute Press (1999) , hardcover, 191 pages, ISBN 0-8447-4087-X
* John Feffer, North Korea South Korea: U.S. Policy at a Time of Crisis, Seven Stories Press, 2003, paperback, 197 pages, ISBN 1-58322-603-6
* Ron Goodden, North Korea commentary (August, 2007)
* Michael Harrold, Comrades and Strangers: Behind the Closed Doors of North Korea, Wiley Publishing, 2004, paperback, 432 pages, ISBN 0-470-86976-3
* Helen-Louise Hunter, Kim Il-song's North Korea. Praeger, 1999. ISBN 0-275-96296-2.
* Kang, Chol-Hwan (2001). The Aquariums of Pyongyang, Basic Books, 2001. ISBN 0-465-01102-0.
* Mitchell B. Lerner, The Pueblo Incident: A Spy Ship and the Failure of American Foreign Policy, University Press of Kansas, 2002, hardcover, 408 pages, ISBN 0-7006-1171-1
* Andrei Lankov, 'North of the DMZ: Essays on Daily Life in North Korea , McFarland & Company (April 24, 2007), paperback, 358 pages, ISBN 978-0786428397
* John Feffer, North Korea South Korea: U.S. Policy at a Time of Crisis, Seven Stories Press, 2003, paperback, 197 pages, ISBN 1-58322-603-6
* Oberdorfer, Don. The two Koreas : a contemporary history. Addison-Wesley, 1997, 472 pages, ISBN 0-201-40927-5
* Kong Dan Oh, and Ralph C. Hassig, North Korea Through the Looking Glass, The Brookings Institution, 2000, paperback, 216 pages, ISBN 0-8157-6435-9
* Osmond, Andrew, High, Minnow Press, 2004, paperback, 216 pages, ISBN 978-0953944828 Includes a fictional account of the creation of a new state of New Korea.
* Quinones, Dr. C. Kenneth, and Joseph Tragert, The Complete Idiot's Guide to Understanding North Korea, Alpha Books, 2004, paperback, 448 pages, ISBN 1-59257-169-7
* Sigal, Leon V., Disarming Strangers: Nuclear Diplomacy with North Korea, Princeton University Press, 199, 336 pages, ISBN 0-691-05797-4
* Chris Springer, Pyongyang: The Hidden History of the North Korean Capital. Saranda Books, 2003. ISBN 963-00-8104-0.
* Vladimir, Cyber North Korea, Byakuya Shobo, 2003, paperback, 223 pages, ISBN 4-89367-881-7
* Norbert Vollertsen, Inside North Korea: Diary of a Mad Place, Encounter Books, 2003, hardcover, 280 pages, ISBN 1-893554-87-2
* Wahn Kihl, Y. (1983) "North Korea in 1983: Transforming "The Hermit Kingdom"?" Asian Survey, Vol. 24, No. 1: pp100-111
* Robert Willoughby, North Korea: The Bradt Travel Guide. Globe Pequot, 2003. ISBN 1-84162-074-2.
* Hyun Hee Kim, "The Tears of My Soul", William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1993, hardcover, 183 pages, ISBN 0-688-12833-5
* Ducruet, Cesar et Jo, Jin-Cheol (2008) Coastal Cities, Port Activities and Logistic Constraints in a Socialist Developing Country: The Case of North Korea, Transport Reviews, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 1-25: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/462288788-26821155/content~content=a782923580~db=all~tab=content~order=page

[edit] Pictorials

* Christian Kracht, Eva Munz, Lukas Nikol, "The Ministry Of Truth: Kim Jong Il's North Korea", Feral House, Oct 2007, 132 pages, 88 color photographs, ISBN 978-932595-27-7

[edit] External links
Korea portal
Find more about North Korea on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
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Learning resources

* Official Website of the DPR Korea
* Official Website of the DPR Korea in Switzerland
* North Korea Uncovered, (North Korea Google Earth) Comprehensive mapping on Google Earth of the DPRK's political and economic infrastructure, including railways, hotels, factories, military facilities, tourist destinations, cultural facilities, ports, communications, and electricity grid.
* KCNA - Korean Central News Agency, the official news agency of the DPRK
* Naenara - ("My country") DPRK's Official Web Portal run by Korea Computer Company
* North Korea at the Open Directory Project

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Anonymous said...

[غلق]
[أغلق]
ويكيبيديا تعتمد على تبرعاتك: رجاء أعط اليوم.
تبرع الآن »
[افتح]
ادعم ويكيبيديا: المشروع غير الهادف للربح.
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[افتح]
ادعم ويكيبيديا: المشروع غير الهادف للربح. — تبرع الآن
السعودية
من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
اذهب إلى: تصفح, ابحث
المملكة العربية السعودية
علم السعودية شعار السعودية
علم السعودية شعار السعودية
الشعار الوطني: لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله
النشيد الوطني: عاش المليك
موقع السعودية
العاصمة الرياض
[شاهد الموقع على الخريطة التفاعلية] 22°42′N, 46°43′E
أكبر مدينة الرياض
اللغة/اللغات الرسمية العربية
نظام الحكم
الملك
ولي العهد
حكومة ملكية مطلقة
خادم الحرمين الشريفين الملك عبدالله بن عبد العزيز آل سعود
الأمير سلطان بن عبد العزيز آل سعود
الاستقلال
الوحدة

23 سبتمبر 1932
8 يناير 1926
20 مايو 1927
المساحة
- كامل
- مياه (%) 2,149,690

الناتج القومي للفرد = 85.000$كم² (14)

لا تذكر
السكان
- توقع 2008.
- الكثافة السكانية
24,600,000 (43)
11\كم² (205)
الناتج القومي الإجمالي
- الناتج القومي
- الناتج القومي للفرد
{{{الناتج}}}({{{التصنيف العالمي}}})

{{{الناتج القومي للفرد}}} ({{{التصنيف العالمي للناتج القومي للفرد}}})
العملة ريال سعودي (SAR)
فرق التوقيت +3 (UTC)
رمز الإنترنت الدولي .sa
رمز الهاتف الدولي 966+

المملكة العربية السعودية دولة عربية إسلامية تقع في شبه الجزيرة العربية وهي مهبط الوحي و بلاد الحرمين وتستأثر بثلاث أخماس مساحتها، ويحد المملكة العربية السعودية من الشمال كل من العراق والأردن و الكويت، و من الشرق الإمارات وقطر والبحرين و الخليج العربي، و الجنوب كل من سلطنة عُمان واليمن.ومن الغرب البحر الاحمر


تميزت شبه الجزيرة العربية بموقعها الأستراتيجي بين ثلاث قارات كبرى وتقع في النصف الشمالي للكرة الأرضية موطنا للعديد من الحضارات، ومهداً للرسالات السماوية. فقد ازدهرت فيها داخل حدود المملكة حضارة مدين، بالإضافة إلى حضارة ثمود في العلا والتي لاتزال آثارها موجودة حتى اليوم في المنطقة المعروفة بإسم مدائن صالح، وفي نجران نجد الاخدود الذي ذكر في القرآن الكريم عن أصحاب الاخدود.

وفي هذه الجزيرة التي كانت ممر تجارياً هاماً وطريقا للقوافل وفيهاانتشر الاسلام في قلب الجزيرة العربية وانتشرت منها إلى سائر أرجاء العالم حتى وصلت إلى أفريقيا وآسيا وجزء من أوروبا على مدى عصور ازدهار دولة الخلافة الإسلامية.

ومرت مئات من السنين ظهرت فيها دول، وزالت دول، وقام المسلمون بدورهم الحضاري التاريخي، الذي عبرت عليه الحضارة الانسانية الحديثة من عصورها المظلمة، وانتشر الإسلام في شتى بقاع الأرض. ورغم ابتعاد القيادة الزمنية عن المدينة المنورة وشبه الجزيرة العربية بوجه عام، قد أحدث تأثيرات كان لها دورها فيما وقع بعد ذلك من أحداث فالأراضي المقدسة ظلت مقصداً للحجاج والمعتمرين والزائرين.

في عهد الأمير محمد بن سعود ظهرت الدعوة السلفية وشعارها أن لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله داعية ً للتواحيد الخالص و التخلص من الشركيات و البدع التي عمت في ذلك الوقت ، ظهرت هذه الدعوة في نجد تحت حكم آل سعود في الدرعية وأستمر توسع إمارة الدرعية حتى شمل كامل مناطق نجد والاحساء و القطيف وأمتد نفوذه ومشارف بلاد الشام و العراق و اليمن وعمان زمن سعود بن عبدالعزيز بن محمد سنة 1803

في عام ١٨١٨م - ١٢٣٣ هجرية توجهت جحافل محمد علي باشا عامل الدولة العثمانية على مصر وحوصرت الدرعية حتى سلم عبدالله بن سعود نفسه على شرط ترك العباد و البلاد لكن الدرعية دمرت و هدمت و عبد الله بن سعود تم شنقه في مصر بتهمة التآمر على الدولة العثمانية و إثارة الفتنة [...] ، وبذلك طويت صفحة الدولة السعودية الأولى .

* فيصل بن تركي: تتألف ولايته من فترتين الاولى تمت ما بين العام 1246 هـ / 1830م والعام 1255 هـ / 1839 م والثانية من العام 1258 هـ / 1843م إلى حين وفاته عام 1282 هـ / 1865م.
* عبدالرحمن الفيصل: تولى الامارة بعد وفاة سعود بن فيصل، ولكنه لم يستمر فيها سوى سنة وبعض السنة، ثم عاد اليها مرة أخرى بعد وفاة أخيه عبدالله بن فيصل، وكان ذلك عام 1306 هـ / 1888م. ودخل الميدان في هذه الفترة الامير محمد بن رشيد أمير حائل إذ ذاك الذي بسط سيطرته على شطر كبير من الجزيرة العربية وكانت الحكومة العثمانية في الاستانة تدعمه بقوة للوقوف في وجه آل سعود. وانتهت الفترة الثانية لولاية الامام عبدالرحمن الفيصل بمغادرته الرياض مع عائلته فتوجه إلى قطر ثم إلى البحرين ثم إلى الكويت وكان بين أفراد أسرته أحد أولاده عبدالعزيز الذي كان في العقد الثاني من عمره. وما ان وصل عبدالعزيز مع والده إلى الكويت حتى بدأ يفكر في العودة إلى الرياض.

الملك عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن آل سعود يرحمه الله برفقة الرئيس الأمريكي روزفلت

.

* استطاع الملك عبدالعزيز دخول الرياض في اليوم الخامس من شهر شوال 1319 هـ الموافق 17 يناير 1902م . واستطاع أن يفتح الرياض، ويتغلب على خصومه آل رشيد, كما إستطاع عبدالعزيز ضم الإحساء والقطيف وباقي بلدان نجد والحجاز على ايدي الاخوان بقيادة سلطان بن بجاد بين 1913-1926.وأصبح عبدالعزيز في الثامن من يناير 1926 ملكاَ للحجاز، وعرفت المملكة بعد ذلك بإسم مملكة الحجاز ونجد وملحقاتها. وصدر بعدها في عام 23 سبتمبر 1932 ميلادي 21 جمادي الثانية 1351هجري المرسوم الملكي بتوحيد مقاطعات الدولة التي تحولت بمقتضى هذا المرسوم إلى المملكة العربية السعودية في وأصبح هذا التاريخ في ما بعد اليوم الوطني للمملكة. بتولى الحكم الملك عبد الله بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود وهو ملك المملكة العربية السعودية.

لم تتضح معالم قوة عبدالعزيز العسكرية والتفوق السياسي من الناحية الإقتصادية حتى إكتشاف النفط في البلاد عام 1938. برامج التطوير والتحديث, والتي تأخرت بسبب الحرب العالمية الثانية عام 1939, وبدأت بشكل جدي عام 1946. ساهم النفط في إزدهار الإقتصاد السعودي وعقد صفقات تجارية مع المجتمع الدولي.

عالمياّ اتخذ عبدالعزيز سياسة الحياد. حيث رفض أن تنضم المملكة العربية السعودية إلى عصبة الأمم،[بحاجة لمصدر]كما انه من عام 1916 حتى وفاته عام 1953 لم يخرج من المملكة إلا لثلاث مناسبات رسمية،[بحاجة لمصدر]إحداها كانت لقائه مع الرئيس الأمريكي روزفلت. في آخر عهده أدرك عبدالعزيز أهمية وواقعية المجتمع السياسي فكانت المملكة العربية السعودية عام 1945 إحدى الأعضاء المؤسسين لجامعة الدول العربية كما انضمت للأمم المتحدة.

قبيل وفاة عبدالعزيز عام 1953, أدرك الصعوبات التي من الممكن أن تواجهها المملكة من بعده, فقام بتأهيل إبنه الأكبر سعود ليصبح ملكاَ من بعده بالتعاون مع أخاه فيصل الذي يمتاز عنه بسياساته الإقتصادية ودبلوماسيته.[بحاجة لمصدر]

تولى سعود العرش من بعد وفاة والده عبدالعزيز عام 1953. في عام 1960 تعرضت المملكة العربية السعودية لمخاطر إقتصادية بسبب سياسة سعود الإقتصادية الغير متوازنة . نتيجة لذالك إجتمع أبناء عبد العزيز و بعض العلماء و قرروا نزع السلطة سلميا ً من سعود و تسليمها لفيصل . و غادر سعود المملكة إلى دولة اليونان وتوفي هناك رحمه الله.

اغتيل الملك فيصل عام 1975 على يد ابن أخيه, الذي يسمى بـفيصل بن مساعد. تبع فيصل في الحكم أخاه الملك خالد حتى وفاته عام 1982. ثم تبعه أخاه الملك فهد حتى وفاته 2005. وتولى من بعده خادم الحرمين الشريفين الملك عبدالله بن عبدالعزيز.......
محتويات
[إخفاء]

* 1 السياسة
o 1.1 السياسة الخارجية
o 1.2 نظام الحكم في المملكة العربية السعودية
o 1.3 تطبيق الشريعة الإسلامية
o 1.4 الجغرافيا
* 2 المناخ
* 3 السكان
* 4 الأديان
o 4.1 الإسلام
o 4.2 الأديان الأخرى
* 5 التقسيم الإداري
* 6 أهم المدن
* 7 التقويم
* 8 النقل والمواصلات
o 8.1 النقل البحري
o 8.2 النقل الجوي
* 9 القوات المسلحة
* 10 التعليم
* 11 الثقافة والحياة الاجتماعية
* 12 الاتصالات
* 13 الإعلام
o 13.1 الفنون و الآداب
o 13.2 الصحف
* 14 الرياضة
* 15 الترتيب عالمياً
* 16 مراجع
* 17 مواقع خارجية

[عدل] السياسة
المقال الرئيسي: سياسة السعودية
عبد الله بن عبد العزيز آل سعود

[عدل] السياسة الخارجية

تعتبر المملكة العربية السعودية قبلة المسلمين ((مكة المكرمة)) من هذا المنطلق تعتبر واجهة الاسلام . اما بخصوص العلاقات الدولية فالمملكة العربية السعودية تمتلك علاقات دبلوماسية مع العديد من دول العالم .

[عدل] نظام الحكم في المملكة العربية السعودية

ملكي (ملكية مطلقة) حكومة دينية. دستور المملكة هو القرآن , و احكام الشريعة الأسلامية هي المقامه على اراضي المملكة .

[عدل] تطبيق الشريعة الإسلامية

تطبق السعودية الشريعة الإسلامية في كثير من نواحي الحياة و خصوصاً في المجالين الجنائي و مجال الأحوال ...

و تتميز المملكة العربية السعودية بتطبيق حد شرع الله دون هوادة في كل من تسول له نفسه في إفساد المواطنين و المقيمين ، و قد طغت في الآونة الأخيرة قضية الطبيبين المصريين الذين اتهما بتجارة المخدرات في الصحف و الأعلام . حيث أن القضاء السعودي أعتبرهما مهربين و ليسا مروجين ، كما أن الحكم جاء متوسط القسوة(15 إلى 20 سنة سجن و 2000 جلدة) ... و المتعارف عليه في المملكة العربية السعودية أن الحكم في مثل هذه الحالة هو القتل تعزيراً ...

[عدل] الجغرافيا

تقع المملكة العربية السعودية في القسم الأكبر من شبه الجزيرة و أبرز معالم السطح فيها ما يلي:

* سلسلة جبال السروات في الغرب، و تمتد على طول البلاد من الشمال إلى الجنوب، و يسمى القسم الشمالي منها بالحجاز و القسم الجنوبي منها بعسير، و يتعدى ارتفاعها عند أعلى نقطة حوالي 3000 م.[بحاجة لمصدر]
* سهل ساحلي ضيق يسمى تهامة، يفصل بين جبال السروات و البحر الأحمر.
* هضبة نجد، و هي هضبة صخرية واسعة تقع إلى الشرق من جبال الحجاز و يترواح ارتفاعها بين 320م و 1200 م،[بحاجة لمصدر]تتخللها النفود الرملية و الأودية الضيقة كما يخترقها من الشمال إلى الجنوب، و يوجد في شمالها جبلا أجا و سلمى .
* سهل ساحلي واسع في شرق البلاد، يسوده الجفاف باستثناء واحتين كبيرتين هما الأحساء و القطيف، و كانت هذه المنطقة تسمى فيما مضى بإقليم البحرين.
* بحار رملية غير مأهولة بالسكان أهمها الربع الخالي في جنوب البلاد، و النفود الكبير في شماله، و يصل بينهما شريط ضيق من النفود الرملية يسمى صحراء الدهناء.
* تتبع للمملكة 1300 جزيرة منها 1150 جزيرة في البحر الاحمر و 150 جزيرة في الخليج العربى، من أهمها جزر فرسان قرب جيزان وجزيرة تاروت قرب القطيف.

[عدل] المناخ

يتنوع المناخ في السعودية من منطقة إلى أخرى نظراً لمتداد مساحات المملكة على درجات عرض متباعدة تتفاوت فيها الارتفاعات والانخفاضات من مكان إلى آخر إلا أن الملاحظ على مناخ المملكة بصفة عامة، أنه شديد الحرارة صيفاً شديد البرودة شتاءً؛ وذلك لأن معظم أراضي المملكة واقعة في إقليم المنطقة الحارة ولتعرضها لهبوب الرياح الباردة، بذلك تنخفض درجات الحرارة شتاءً.

وفي وسط البلاد، المناخ قاري، شتاء بارد وصيف شديد الحرارة والجفاف (48 درجة مئوية في الرياض ورطوبة نسبية لا تتعدى 9% في تموز)، أما المناطق الساحلية فشتاؤها دافئ و صيفها يتميز بشدة الحرارة والرطوبة. اما في مرتفعات عسير تمتاز بجو معتدل في الصيف و بارد في الشتاء، مع أمطار موسمية طيلة الأشهر الصيفية. أما باقي البلاد فتسقط فيها الأمطار بشكل متفاوت بين العام و الآخر في أشهر الشتاء وأوائل الربيع بفعل الرياح العكسية.[4]

[عدل] السكان
هذا المقال أو المقطع ينقصه الاستشهاد بمصادر.
الرجاء تحسين المقال بوضع مصادر مناسبة. أي معلومات غير موثقة يمكن التشكيك بها وإزالتها.
وسم هذا القالب منذ: ديسمبر 2007
النمو السكاني في المملكة من 1961-2003

تقديرات 2008 تشير الى وصول عدد السكان الى 24 مليون نسمة , منهم 17 مليون سعودي (70.8%) و 7 مليون غير سعودي (29.2%). حتى الستينات من القرن الماضي ينقسم السكان الى حضر اهل المدن والقرى وبدو رحل , وكنتيجة للإزدهار الإقتصادي والتطور المدني, أصبح أكثر من %98 من السكان من الحضر. ويبلغ معدل المواليد 29.56 حالة ولادة لكل 1000 شخص. معدل الوفاة هو فقط 2.62 حالة وفاة لكل 100 شخص. بعض المدن والواحات يقطنها أكثر من 1000 شخص لكل متر مربع(2.600 متر مربع).

هناك أكثر من سبع ملايين وافد من أنحاء العالم, تشمل من الهند: 1.4 مليون شخص, بنغلاديش: مليون شخص, الفلبين: 950,000 شخص, باكستان: 900,000 شخص, أفغانستان: 750,000 شخص. هناك الكثير من العرب من الدول المجاورة يعملون في المملكة وخاصة (مصر)الأردن وفلسطين ولبنان وسوريا واليمن. هناك أكثر من 100,000 غربي في المملكة, الأغلبية منهم يعيشون في مجمعات سكنية خاصة, ويتركز أكثر الوافدين غرب المملكة وبالتحديد مدينتي مكة وجدة واكثرها في مكة حيث تشهد حيث تعد مكة المكرمة من اوائل من مدن العالم في التنوع في الاعراق ، ويتركز الوافدين من شرق أفريقيا في جدة نظرا لقربها ومكة نظرا لقربها من جدة ايضا ولوجود المسجد الحرام .

[عدل] الأديان

[عدل] الإسلام

لا يوجد بين مواطني السعودية مواطن غير مسلم , و يشكل المسلمون السنة بين 92% الى 95% من السعوديين. تاريخياً المذهب السني الحنبلي هو السائد في وسط البلاد و شمالها ، و السني الشافعي في غربها و جنوبها , والمذهب الحنبلي هو المعتمد في نظام التعليم كما أنه هو السائد بين هيئة كبار العلماء المخولة بإصدار الفتاوى , و بناءً على ذلك يمكن اعتبار المذهب الحنبلي المذهب الرسمي للدولة و ان لم توجد مادة في نظام الحكم تصرح بذلك. في القضاء يسمح دائما بالرجوع إلى كافة المذاهب الفقهية السنية , كما توجد محاكم شيعية متخصصة يرجع لها اختيارياً.[1]

و توجد في المملكة عدة فرق شيعية ، أهمها الطائفة الاثني عشرية و الطائفة الاسماعيلية ، ويتركز أتباعها في شرق البلاد كما يتواجدون في المدينة المنورة و الرياض و نجران. تتفاوت التقديرات الأجنبية حول نسبة الشيعة بين السعوديين ما بين 5% إلى 8% .[2][3]

[عدل] الأديان الأخرى
هذا المقال أو المقطع ينقصه الاستشهاد بمصادر.
الرجاء تحسين المقال بوضع مصادر مناسبة. أي معلومات غير موثقة يمكن التشكيك بها وإزالتها.
وسم هذا القالب منذ: ديسمبر 2007

تسمح المملكة للجاليات التي تعتنق المسيحية والهندوسية و البوذية بالدخول إلى البلاد والعمل لفترة مؤقتة, ولكن لا يسمح لهم بممارسة شعائرهم بصفة علنية

رأس، أغنام 12،1 مليون رأس، معز 7،4 مليون رأس. صيد الاسماك 50،000 طن (لؤلؤ).

[عدل] التقسيم الإداري

منطقة الرياض
منطقة الباحة
منطقة جيزان
منطقة عسير
منطقة نجران
منطقة مكة المكرمة
المنطقة الشرقية
منطقة القصيم
منطقة المدينة المنورة
منطقة الحدود الشمالية
منطقة حائل
منطقة تبوك
منطقة الجوف


تقسم المملكة العربية السعودية إلى 13 منطقة تسمى بـ (المنطقة الإدارية) أو (الأمارة):

*
o 1- منطقة الباحة - مقر الأمارة - الباحة
o 2- منطقة الحدود الشمالية - مقر الأمارة - عرعر
o 3- منطقة الجوف - مقر الأمارة - سكاكا
o 4- منطقة المدينة المنورة - مقر الأمارة - المدينة المنورة
o 5- منطقة القصيم - مقر الأمارة - بريدة
o 6- منطقة الرياض - مقر الأمارة - الرياض
o 7- المنطقة الشرقية - مقر الأمارة - الدمام
o 8- منطقة عسير - مقر الأمارة - أبها
o 9- منطقة حائل - مقر الأمارة - حائل
o 10- منطقة جازان - مقر الأمارة - جازان
o 11- منطقة مكة المكرمة - مقر الأمارة - مكة المكرمة
o 12- منطقة نجران - مقر الأمارة - نجران
o 13- منطقة تبوك - مقر الأمارة - تبوك

[عدل] أهم المدن
الرياض

المقال الرئيسي: مدن السعودية

يبلغ عدد مدن المملكة العربية السعودية الرئيسية حوالي 14 مدينة تقريباً :

* الرياض - العاصمة وأكبر المدن مساحةً و سكاناً.
* جدة - المدينة الثانية من حيث السكان، ميناء هام وبوابة الحرمين الشريفين.
* الدمام - عاصمة المنطقة الشرقية الغنية بالنفط و ميناء هام.
* مكة المكرمة - منطقة دينية مقدسة عند المسلمين و قبلتهم.
* المدينة المنورة -منطقة دينية مقدسة عند المسلمين ومثوى النبي
* الأحساء - أكبر واحة نخيل بالعالم و مدينة تاريخية وتحتوي على أكبر حقل نفط بالعالم حقل الغوار .
* أبها - مقر إمارة منطقة عسير ومدينة جبلية سياحية جميلة .
* بريدة - عاصمة منطقة القصيم. وتشتهر بزراعة النخيل .
* تبوك - عاصمة منطقة تبوك وتعتبر من أكبر المدن الزراعية في المملكة.
* جازان - عاصمة منطقة جازان يوجد بها ميناء جازان ثالث ميناء على البحر الأحمر.
* الخبر ـ من أكبر المدن السياحيه في السعوديه وفيها جسر الملك فهد الواصل بين السعوديه والبحرين
* الطائف - تقع جنوب شرق مكة المكرمة وتسمى بعروس المصايف.
* الجبيل و ينبع وتعتبر مراكز قوة في الاقتصاد السعودي .
* مدينة الملك عبدالله الاقتصادية -مدينة جديدة تحت الإنشاء ، ويتوقع أن تكون عاصمة الإقتصاد والمعرفة لدى المملكة.

[عدل] التقويم

تعتمد المملكة في تاريخها الرسمي علي التقويم الهجري المستند إلى هجرة النبي محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم من مكة إلى المدينة المنورة. والسنة الهجرية القمرية (354 يوما) مقسمة إلى إثني عشر شهراً قمرياً(يستخدم في الأعياد و المناسبات الدينية)، ولكن الشركات في المملكة تعتمد على التقويم الميلادي.[بحاجة لمصدر]

العطلة الأسبوعية الرسمية في المملكة: يوم الخميس والجمعة، عطلة عيد الفطر، وعطلة عيد الأضحى المبارك "الحج" ، واليوم الوطني الذي يوافق 23 سبتمبر (1 الميزان) سنوياً.

[عدل] النقل والمواصلات

تمتلك المملكة العربية السعودية أكبر شبكة للطرق بالشرق الأوسط[بحاجة لمصدر]إذ تتنوع ما بين الطرق البرية والجوية والبحرية فمن ناحية الطرق البرية فإنها تتنوع وتتختلف من منطقة إلى منطقة كما يوجد سكة حديد تربط ما بين ميناء الملك عبدالعزيز بمدينة الدمام وما بين الميناء الجاف بمدينة الرياض ويمر بالأحساء وبقيق والظهران وحرض أما الطرق المسفلته فتمتد مسافة شاسعة و لعل من أهمهما: طريق الحجاز الرياض وطريق الرياض الدمام وطريق الجنوب.

[عدل] النقل البحري
ميناء جدة الإسلامي

تنقسم الموانئ في المملكة إلى عدد من الأنواع لعل أهمها :

* الموانئ التجارية : ميناء الملك عبدالعزيز بالدمام - ميناء جدة الإسلامي - ميناء الملك فهد بالجبيل - ميناء الملك فهد بينبع - ميناء جازان.
* المؤانى الصناعيه : ميناء الملك فهد الصناعي بالجبيل - ميناء الملك فهد الصناعي بينبع.
* المؤانئ النفطيه : ميناء رأس تنورة - ميناء الجعيمة - ميناء رأس الخفجي - ميناء رابغ ميناء الملك فهد الصناعي بينبع..
* مؤانئ نقل الركاب : ميناء جدة الإسلامي - ميناء ضباء.
* مؤانئ صيد الأسماك : القطيف - القنفذة - الليث - رأس تنوره - تاروت - دارين - ينبع .

[عدل] النقل الجوي

المقال الرئيسي: قائمة المطارات السعودية

يتوزع في المملكة العربية السعودية 27 مطار وهي

* المطارات الدولية :

1. مطار الملك فهد بن عبدالعزيز بالمنطقة الشرقية.
2. مطار الملك خالد بن عبدالعزيز بمنطقة الرياض
3. مطار الملك عبدالعزيز بمنطقة مكة المكرمة.
4. مطار الأمير محمد بن عبدالعزيز بمنطقة المدينة المنورة

* أما المطارات الإقليمية فهي:

1. مطار حائل الإقليمي بمنطقة حائل.
2. مطار القصيم الإقليمي بمنطقة القصيم.
3. مطار أبها الإقليمي بمنطقة عسير.
4. مطار الملك عبدالله بن عبدالعزيز الإقليمي بمنطقة جيزان.
5. مطار تبوك الإقليمي بمنطقة تبوك.
6. مطار الطائف الإقليمي بمنطقة مكة المكرمة

* و المطارات المحلية هي :

1. مطار حفرالباطن المحلي بالمنطقة الشرقية.
2. مطار الأحساء المحلي بالمنطقة الشرقية.
3. مطار الجوف المحلي بمنطقة الجوف.
4. مطار القريات المحلي بمنطقة الجوف.
5. مطار دومة الجندل المحلي بمنطقة الجوف.
6. مطار عرعر المحلي بمنطقة الحدود الشمالية
7. مطار رفحاء المحلي بمنطقة الحدود الشمالية.
8. مطار طريف المحلي بمنطقة الحدود الشمالية.
9. مطار الوجه المحلي بمنطقة تبوك.
10. مطار العلا المحلي بمنطقة المدينة المنورة.
11. مطار ينبع المحلي بمنطقة المدينة المنورة.
12. مطار الباحة المحلي بمنطقة الباحة.
13. مطار بيشة المحلي بمنطقة عسير.
14. مطار نجران المحلي بمنطقة نجران.
15. مطار شرورة المحلي بمنطقة نجران.
16. مطار الدوادمي المحلي بمنطقة الرياض.
17. مطار وادي الدواسر المحلي بمنطقة الرياض.

وقريباً سيتم إنشاء مطارين جديدين في كلٍ من سدير والأفلاج.

وكما يوجد عدد من المطارات الصغيرة والخاصة بشركة ارامكو السعودية

[عدل] القوات المسلحة

تحتل المملكة المركز التاسع فى الانفاق العسكرى طبقا لتقديرات 2007 م وتمتلك جيش يقدر ب2مليوم جندى عامل وربع مليون جندى إحتياط و75 ألف جندى حرس سلطانى و150 ألف قوات شبه عسكرية بالأضافة إلى اسطول جوي و بحري هائل

[عدل] التعليم
المقال الرئيسي: التعليم في السعودية

ينقسم التعليم في المملكة إلى قسمين:

* الأول وهو التعليم العام وينقسم إلى ثلاث مراحل
o المرحلة الإبتدائية وتتكون من ست سنوات دراسية.
o المرحلة المتوسطة وتتكون من ثلاث سنوات دراسية.
o المرحلة الثانوية وتتكون من ثلاث مراحل دراسية.
* الثاني وهو التعليم العالي ويتكون من
o الدراسة الجامعية لمرحة البكالوريوس.
o الدراسة الجامعية لشهادة الماجستير.
o الدراسة الجامعية لشهادة الدكتوراة.

كما يتوفر التعليم المتخصص في المرحلة الإبتدائية في تحفيظ القرآن الكريم و كذلك المتوسطة و الثانوية و التعليم الصناعي و التعليم التجاري و التعليم الزراعي.

وتشرف وزارة التربية والتعليم على مراحل التعليم العام. كما تشرف وزارة التعليم العالي على مراحل التعليم الجامعي. كما صدر النظام الجديد 1424 هـ و الذي يقضي باختبار جميع طلاب السنة الأخيرة في الثانوية العامةاختبار القدرات ويتم في الجامعات من قبل مركز القياس والتطوير (قياس).ويقيس الاختبار المجالين اللغوي والكمي(الرياضي). بالاضافه لصدور قرار آخر اعتمدته الجامعات وهو أداء اختبار آخر للمتقدمين للتخصصات الصحية و الهندسية يسمى هذا الاختبار الاختبار التحصيلي ويدير هذا الاختبار مركز (قياس)أيضا وهو يقيس مستوى الطلاب في 5 مواد(رياضيات كيمياء فيزياء إنجليزي و احياء ).

المقال الرئيسي: قائمة الجامعات السعودية

[عدل] الثقافة والحياة الاجتماعية
المسجد الحرام بمكة
المسجد النبوي بالمدينة

تعززت وتطورت الثقافة السعودية داخل إطار التشريعات والتعاليم الإسلامية, إحدى أشرف وأقدس بقاع الأرض, مكة المكرمة والمدينة المنورة تقعان في أراضي السعودية, في كل يوم في أوقات الصلاة الخمس ينادى للصلاة ويتجه المسلمون لأداء الصلاة في المساجد المنتشرة في أنحاء البلاد, يومي الخميس والجمعة هي أيام الإجازات الرسمية في البلاد, الممارسات العلنية لأي دين اّخر غير الإسلام بما في ذلك المسيحية واليهودية, وجود الكنائس أوالمعابد, جميعها ممنوعاَ منعاَ باتاَ في السعودية.

الزي السعودي الرسمي الخاص بالرجال عبارة عن قميص طويل مصنوع من القطن أوالصوف ويدعي ثوب, بلإضافة إلى الشماغ وهو عبارة عن قطعة قماش مصنوعة من القطن ومخططة بلأحمر ويثبت على الرأس بالعقال الأسود, أو الغترة وهي عبارة عن قطعة قماش بيضاء مصنوعة من القطن الخفيف, وكلاهما يلبسان على الرأس. في بعض المناسبات الرسمية كلأعياد وحفلات الزفاف يفضل بعض السعوديين إضافة إلى ماسبق إرتداء البشت أوالمشلح. الزي الإسلامي التقليدي للسعوديات عبارة عن غطاء أسود ساتر للجسم ويسمى العباية بلإضافة إلى غطاء الرأس الحجاب وأحياناَ النقاب.

تمنع السعودية أكل الخنزير وشرب الخمور بكافة أنواعها منعاَ قاطعاَ، تبعاً للشريعة الإسلامية و يعتبر الخبز و الأرز من الأكلات المهمة في كل وجبة ومع كل أكلة. من الأكلات الشهيرة في السعودية هو الكبسة، بالإضافة إلى الغوزي و المندي. القهوة العربية تعد من أهم تقاليد المجتمع السعودي وإحدى أهم مظاهر الضيافة والتي تقدم عادة مع التمر والذي تختلف أنواعه إختلافاَ كبيراَ فمنها السكري, القصيمي وغيرها بلإضافة إلى البلح. وكذلك يعد الشاي العربي والذي غالباَ يكون ممزوجاَ بالنعناع إحدى عادات المجتمع السعودي والذي يتم شربه في الإجتماعات الغير رسمية بين الأصدقاء والعائلة إلى الإجتماعات الرسمية كحفلات الخطوبة والزفاف.

إحدى العادات الوطنية الشهيرة في السعودية, والتي تمارس بشكل جماعي, هي العرضة, وهي تعتبر بمثابة الرقص الوطني في السعودية, العرضة عبارة عن رقص بالسيوف مستوحى من التقاليد البدوية القديمة يصاحبها ضرب بالطبول وإنشاد القصائد التراثية. العرضة النجدية هي مجموعة من الرقصات الفلكورية ولكل منطقة في السعودية طريقة معينة، منها العرضة النجدية، العرضة النجدية هي نتاج تطور لعادة عربية قديمة عرفها العرب منذ الجاهلية في حالة الحرب،[بحاجة لمصدر]رغم عدم وجود نصوص في التراث العربي القديم، يمكن من خلالها الربط بينها وبين واقع العرضة التي تعرف اليوم، إلا أن الملاحظ وبكل وضوح، أن أركان العرضة الأساسية كانت ملازمة للحرب منذ الجاهلية، فالطبول تقرع منذ القدم في الحرب، والسيف يحمل، والشعر الحماسي عنصر أساسي من عناصر الحرب. وتعد العرضة النجدية ـ وكما هو معروف ـ فناً حربياً كان يؤديه أهالي نجد بعد الانتصار في المعارك،[بحاجة لمصدر]وذلك قبل توحيد أجزاء البلاد عندما كانت الحروب سائدة في الجزيرة العربية. ومن مستلزمات هذا اللون من الفن الراية والسيوف والبنادق لمنشدي قصائد الحرب، بينما هنالك مجموعة من حملة الطبول، يضربون عليها بايقاع متوافق مع انشاد الصفوف، ويطلق على أصحاب الطبول الذين يقفون في الخلف طبول التخمير، أما الذين في الوسط، فهم الذين يؤدون رقصات خاصة لطبول الاركاب، كما يوجد بالوسط حامل البيرق (العلم).[بحاجة لمصدر]وتقام في وقتنا الحاضرالعرضة النجدية في مواسم الأعياد والأفراح والمناسبات الوطنية بحضور ملك السعودية والأمراء والمواطنين.

بلإضافة إلى العرضة هناك أيضاَ رقصةالدحة,والمنتشرة في شمال البلاد وفي الأردن ايضا وكذلك السحبة, المشهورة في الحجاز, والمستوحاة أصلاَ من عرب الأندلس القديمة.[بحاجة لمصدر]في مكة, المدينة وجدة الرقص والغناء يكون مصحوباَ بأنغام اّلة المزمار. الطبلة أيضاَ إحدى الاّلات الموسيقية المهمة في الرقصات السعودية الشعبية.

[عدل] الاتصالات

الخدمة الهاتفية

* خطوط الهاتف الرئيسية / 4,000,000 (2002)
* عدد المشتركين في خدمة الهاتف المحمول / 30 مليون (2008)

الانترنت

* حسب إحصائيات شركة الإتصالات السعودية STC فإن عدد مستخدمي شبكة الانترنت 18,5 مليون.
* صرح للملكة العربية السعودية بأستخدام الإنترنت عام 1985 م للتطبيقات العسكرية و عام 1994 م للتطبيقات المدنية.

وأخذ النطاق SA وهو أختصار لـ Saudi Arabia ( مع العلم أن السعودية تعتمد K.S.A لأنها مملكة حيث يرمز حرف الـ K إلى Kingdom ) .

الإنترنت في المملكة العربية السعودية – 2006-09-28 12:19:42 دخل الإنترنت إلى المملكة العربية السعودية للمرة الأولى في عام 1994م عندما حصلت المؤسسات التعليمية والطبية والبحثية على تصريح بالدخول إلى شبكة الإنترنت. ودخل الإنترنت رسمياً إلى المملكة في عام 1997م بموجب قرار وزاري، وسمح للعامة بالوصول إلى الإنترنت في عام 1999م.

تعتبر المملكة العربية السعودية من أسرع دول العالم نمواً في أسواق الإنترنت. وقد قفز عدد مستخدمي الإنترنت من 200.000 مستخدم عام 2000م إلى 4,800,000 مستخدم عام 2006م، مما يعني أن قرابة 20% من سكان المملكة يستخدمون الإنترنت، غير أنه من المرجح تزايد هذا العدد بشكل مضطرد عاماً بعد عام.[5]

تقوم شركة الاتصالات السعودية (STC) بتزويد المستخدمين بخدمة الإنترنت عنطريق الخطوط الارضية والجوال حيث انها المزود الوحيد للخدمة عن طريق الخطوط الارضية وتسعى الشركات الأخرى للدخول في هذا المجال الذي يعتبر الاقوى في توفير خدمات ثابتة للإنترنت. وتشترك كل من شركة الاتصالات السعودية وشركة مبايلي للإتصالات وشركة زين للإتصالات بتزويد المستخدمين بخدمة الإنترنت عن طريق الجوال والتي تعتمد على قوة الشبكة وعدد المستخدمين.

كما توجد بعض الشركات التي توفر خدمة الانترنت في المملكة بتقنية الكيابل التلفزيونية او عن طريق التقنية الحديثة Wi-Fi.

البريد

* عدد مكاتب البريد الحكومية 3،581 مكتب


شركات الاتصالات المتوفرة

* شركة الاتصالات السعودية
* شركة اتحاد اتصالات ( موبايلي )
* شركة الاتصالات المتنقلة السعودية ( زين السعودية )

[عدل] الإعلام

تمتلك المملكة العربية السعودية إحدى أكثر وسائل الإعلام تطوراً،[بحاجة لمصدر]ولكنها أيضاً خاضعة لقيود. عموما، لا يتم التسامح مع انتقاد الحكومة والعائلة المالكة والتشكيك في العقائد الدينية. ولكن عام 2003 شهد بدء ظهور مؤشرات على انفتاح متزايد، بحيث حصلت بعض المواضيع التي كانت محرمة فيما مضى على تغطية إعلامية وتلفزيونية.[بحاجة لمصدر] وقيل إن هجمات 11 أيلول/سبتمبر وحوادث الإرهاب الداخلية أدت إلى إعداد تقارير تتسم بقدر أكبر من الجرأة والصراحة.[بحاجة لمصدر] مؤسسة الإذاعة في السعودية مسؤولة عن جميع أشكال البث في المملكة، وهي خاضعة بصورة مباشرة لوزارة الإعلام. ويتم الارسال التلفازي عبر أربع قنوات، الأولى باللغة العربية، و الثانية باللغة الإنجليزية و تتضمن نشرة أخبار باللغة الفرنسية، و القناة الثالثة الرياضية، و الرابعة الإخبارية

[عدل] الفنون و الآداب

يمتلك مواطنون من السعودية و أفراد من العائلة المالكة القسم الأكبر من القنوات فضائية في العالم العربي[بحاجة لمصدر]وتلعب المملكة دورا إعلاميا رئيسيا في منطقة الشرق الأوسط.[بحاجة لمصدر]

و السينما السعودية تعتبر حديثة النشأة حيث وكان هنالك صالات عرض سينما في السعودية قبل 1980 ولكن بعد حادثة جهيمان العتيبي قام تيار الصحوة بالضغط على اغلاقها[بحاجة لمصدر]وهناك صالات عرض للسينما في السعودية ولكن قليلاً ماتعرض ووتكون بدعوة تحت نادي ادبي[بحاجة لمصدر]وأول فيلم سعودي سينمائي ظلال الصمت الذي أنتج عام 2006 عقبه فيلم كيف الحال الذي تم تصويره في مدينة دبي.

[عدل] الصحف

للمزيد انظر إلى الصحافة في السعودية.

جميع الصحف السعودية تصدر بقرار ملكي، و هي تخضع للرقابة. وتمتلك الحكومة وكالة الأنباء السعودية، التي يُستدل بها لغرض اتخاذ القرار بشأن نشر الأخبار الخاصة بالقضايا الحساسة من عدمه.

ومن بين أبرز الصحف الصادرة في السعودية:

* جريدة الوطن
* جريدة الرياض
* جريدة الشرق الأوسط (تصدر من لندن)
* جريدة الجزيرة
* جريدة سعودي جازيت (بالإنجليزية)
* جريدة عكاظ
* جريدة آراب نيوز (بالإنجليزية)
* جريدة اليوم
* جريدة الحياة (تصدر من لندن)
* جريدة الجزيرة
* جريدة البلاد
* جريدة المدينة
* جريدة الندوة
* جريدة الصباح

وهناك في السعودية وكالة أنباء رسمية هي وكالة الأنباء السعودية http://www.spa.gov.sa "واس". لا يسمح بإنشاء محطات إذاعية وتلفزيونية خاصة في السعودية، لكن المملكة تعد سوقا رئيسيا للقنوات الفضائية العربية، التي يمول بعضها من قبل مستثمرين سعوديين.

[عدل] الرياضة

اهم الفرق في السنوات الأخيرة بالترتيب هي الإتحاد والهلال والشباب حيث تناوبت الاندية الثلاثة بطولات الدوري والكأس ومن ثم يأتي من بعدهم النصر فهو معروف بجماهيريته العريضة وكذلك نادي الأهلي في غرب المملكة والإتفاق في شرقها والوحدة في مكة المكرمة والحزم في مدينة الرس وكذلك هنالك اندية أخرى.

[عدل] الترتيب عالمياً
المنظمة نتيجة الاستبيان الترتيب
المنظمة التراثية/جريدة وول ستريت صندوق التجارة الحرة 62 من 157
الإقتصادية Worldwide Quality-of-life Index, 2005 72 من 111
مراسلين بلا حدود صندوق حرية لإعلام العالمية 161 من 167
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 70 من 163
برنامج الأمم المتحدة للتطوير صندوق التنمية الإنساني 76 من 177
A.T. Kearney/مجلة السياسة الأجنبية Globalization Index 2005 45 من 62

[عدل] مراجع

1. ^ موقع كلية القانون بجامعة إموري [1]
2. ^ "السعودية"، موسوعة مايكروسوفت إنكارتا أونلاين، 2007 (لغة إنجليزية) "Saudi Arabia," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2007 http://encarta.msn.com © 1996-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. [2]
3. ^ "المسألة الشيعية في السعودية"، تقرير الشرق الأوسط، العدد 45، 19 سبتمبر 2005، مجموعة الأزمات الدولية (لغة إنجليزية) [3]

[عدل] مواقع خارجية

* موقع وزارة الخارجية السعودية بعدة لغات

بوابة:المملكة العربية السعودية
بوابة المملكة العربية السعودية
كومونز
هنالك المزيد من الملفات في ويكيميديا كومنز حول :
السعودية
عرض • نقاش • تعديل مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربيةأظهر

الإمارات العربية المتحدة • البحرين • السعودية • عُمان • قطر • الكويت


عرض • نقاش • تعديل جامعة الدول العربيةأظهر

الأردن • الإمارات • البحرين • تونس • الجزائر • جزر القمر • جيبوتي • السعودية • السودان • سوريا • الصومال • العراق • عُمان • فلسطين • قطر • الكويت • لبنان • ليبيا • مصر • المغرب • موريتانيا • اليمن
عرض • نقاش • تعديل منظمة المؤتمر الإسلاميأظهر

أذربيجان • إريتريا • الأردن • أفغانستان • ألبانيا • الإمارات • إندونيسيا • أوزبكستان • أوغندا • إيران • باكستان • البحرين • بروناي دار السلام • بنغلاديش • بنين • بوركينا فاسو • تركيا • تركمنستان • تشاد • توغو • تونس • الجزائر • جزر القمر • جيبوتي • ساحل العاج • السعودية • السنغال • السودان • سوريا • سورينام • سيراليون • الصومال • طاجكستان • العراق • عُمان • الغابون • غامبيا • غويانا • غينيا • غينيا بيساو • فلسطين • قرغيزستان • قطر • كازاخستان • الكاميرون • الكويت • لبنان • ليبيا • المالديف • مالي • ماليزيا • مصر • المغرب • موريتانيا • موزمبيق • النيجر • نيجيريا • اليمن
مراقبون
دول: أفريقيا الوسطى • البوسنة والهرسك • تايلاند • روسيا • قبرص التركية
مجتمعات ومنظمات إسلامية: الجبهة الوطنية لتحرير مورو
هيئات دولية: الأمم المتحدة • حركة عدم الانحياز • جامعة الدول العربية • الاتحاد الأفريقي • منظمة التعاون الاقتصادي


عرض • نقاش • تعديل دول الشرق الأوسطأظهر

الأردن • الإمارات العربية المتحدة • البحرين • السعودية • العراق • الكويت • اليمن • إسرائيل • إيران • تركيا • سوريا • سلطنة عُمان • فلسطين • قبرص • قطر • لبنان • مصر


عرض • نقاش • تعديل منظمة الدول المصدرة للنفط (أوبك)أظهر

الإمارات العربية المتحدة • إيران • الجزائر • السعودية • العراق • ليبيا • الكويت • قطر • فنزويلا • نيجيريا • أنغولا


عرض • نقاش • تعديل منظمة الدول العربية المصدرة للنفط (أوابك)أظهر

الإمارات العربية المتحدة • الجزائر • السعودية • العراق • ليبيا • الكويت • قطر • البحرين • مصر • سوريا
عرض • نقاش • تعديل دول في جنوب غرب آسياأظهر

الأردن - أرمينيا - أذربيجان - إسرائيل - الإمارات العربية المتحدة - إيران - البحرين - تركيا - جورجيا - روسيا - المملكة العربية السعودية - سوريا - العراق - عُمان - الكويت - لبنان - قبرص - قطر - فلسطين - اليمن
عرض • نقاش • تعديل دول في آسياأظهر

أذربيجان • الأردن • أرمينيا • أفغانستان • أوزبكستان • إسرائيل • الإمارات العربية المتحدة • إندونيسيا • إيران • باكستان • البحرين • بروناي • بنغلاديش • بوتان • تايلند • تايوان • تركمانستان • تركيا • تيمور الشرقية • جورجيا • سريلانكا • السعودية • سنغافورة • سوريا • الصين • طاجيكستان • العراق • عُمان • الفلبين • فلسطين • فيتنام • قبرص • قرغيزستان • قطر • كازاخستان • كمبوديا • كوريا الجنوبية • كوريا الشمالية • الكويت • لاوس • لبنان • مالديف • ماليزيا • منغوليا • ميانمار • نيبال • الهند • اليابان • اليمن

قوائم الدول حسب الموضوع

أبجديا • السكان • كثافة السكان • السكان المهاجرين إليها • معدل المواليد • معدل الوفيات • معدل وفيات الاطفال • ملكية الأفراد للأسلحة • إجمالي القوات العسكرية • النفقات العسكرية • المساحة • طول السواحل • عدد الدول المجاورة • الناتج القومي • انبعاثات ثاني أكسيد الكربون • متوسط العمر • جرائم القتل • محو الأمية • الانتحار • الجنس • سوء التغذية • الفقر • نظام الحكم • إحتياط النفط • النزاهة • الفساد
تم الاسترجاع من "http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B9%D9%88%D8%AF%D9%8A%D8%A9"
تصنيفات الصفحة: مقالات ذات عبارات بحاجة لمصادر | مقالات بدون مصدر | مقالات بدون مصدر منذ ديسمبر 2007 | منظمة المؤتمر الإسلامي | السعودية | أعضاء جامعة الدول العربية | دول آسيا
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* آخر تعديل لهذه الصفحة كان في 22:01، 30 نوفمبر 2008.
* كل النصوص منشورة تحت رخصة جنو للوثائق الحرة (اقرأ حقوق التأليف والنشر للحصول على التفاصيل).
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